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Micro lecture 2: pathogen classification
Terms in this set (26)
advantages of normal flora;
1. produce bacteriocins/met. products to prevent pathogen colonization 2. metabolic products for host use: Vit. B & K 3. Flora condition the immune system
disadvantages of normal flora
1. may colonize sterile sites: bloodstream, resp. tract 2. may become virulent to Immunocompromized patients 3. antibiotic therapy disrupts, allows overgrowth of deleterious organisms
Describe microbial colonization of the skin. Whats an example of a common organism?
1. colonized with gram positive organisms and yeast. 2. Flora depends on moisture content. 3. Colonization of hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Example= Staph aureus
Describe colonization of the large intestine
heavily colonized with anaerobes, principally bacteroides. Colonization increases from stomach to Large intestine.
describe colonization of the mouth
1. anaerobes. 2. may approach colonization numbers in the large intestine!
describe colonization in the nose and pharynx
Gram + and - cocci. (Neisseria and moraxella): Gram plus rods (corynebacterium. Remainder of resp. tract sterile
describe colonization in the urogenital tract
uretrha has transient colonization. Vaginal colonization changes with age
describe age variations in vaginal colonization
gram positive before puberty (Staph, Strep). Lactobacillus acidophilus after puberty: reduces pH, maintains uniform flora
what is balance pathogencity?
concept that a parasitic organism doesn't want to become too virulent to avoid killing the host
3 main characteristics of a eukaryote. What type of Ribosomes do they have?
1. DNA on chromosomes bounded by nuc. membrane
2. Transcription followed by movement of mRNA from mucus to cytoplasm
3. Multiple Organelles
4. 80S ribosomes
4 characteristics of prokaryotes. what type of ribosomes
1. Genome is single chromosome
2. No Nucleus
3. Transcription and translation are coupled --> quick growth
4. Complex cell envelope
5. 70s ribosomes
what is the significance of transcription and translation being coupled in prokaryotes?
allows for quick fast growth of colonies, which lead to many mutations --> possibility for a beneficial mutation
what are some characteristics that prokaryotes have that Euk. don't?
Cell wall, plasmids, respiration on the cell membrane.
Name a few ways that bacteria are classified (6 total)
Shape: (Rod, cocci, etc)
immunologic typing: (serotping)
biochemical: (biotyping, genotyping, phage typing)
name three bacterial shapes and examples
Coccus: Staph a.
bacillus: Salmonella typhi
spirillum: Capylobacter jejuni, treponema pallidum (syphilis)
1. nucleic acid content and arrangement
2. structure: enveloped/icosahedral
3. hemagglutinin and neuraminidase for Flu
1. prokaryotic single cell organisms.
2. peptidoglycan cell wall with Gram +/- cell membranes
3. flagella and pili
different types of metabolism in Bacteria:
2. anaerobic, using an alternate electron receptor besides Oxygen
what are 2 forms of fungi?
unicellular (yeast), Multicellular (Filamentous)
what are the components of filamentous fungi?
hyphae (branched part), conidia (spores)
explain fungi dimorphism
they may be unicellular in the host, but multicellular in the environment
single celled organisms, may infect humans. Transmitted by ingestion, arthropods, sex, congenitally. e.g malaria, toxoplasmosis, trichomonas, giardia, etc.
where may protozoan infections occur? give some examples
urogenital tract (trichomoniasis)
Describe Helminths. Give some examples
parasitic worms. Have a complex lifescycle. E.g Tapeworms (cestodes), roundworms (nematodes), flukes (trematodes)
how are helminths transmitted?
Ingesion of infected tissue or eggs, (tape and roundworms), skin penetration (schistomes), arthropod vector (wuchereria)
bugs. some transient, while others live on body for long periods. Crab lice: most of life on humans. Scabies: burrow into skin, lay eggs.
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