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Sociology 170

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society
people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture
sociocultural evolution
Lenski's term for the changes that occur as a society acquires new technology
hunting and gathering
the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegitation
horticulture
the use of hand tools to raise crops
pastoralism
the domestication of animals
agriculture
large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources
industrialism
the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
postindustrialism
technology that supports an information-based economy
social conflict
the struggle between segments of society over valued resources
capitalists
people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profit
proletarians
people who sell their productive labor for wages
social institutions
major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, organized to meet human needs
false consciousness
Marx's term for explanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than as the flaws of society
class conflict
conflict between entire classes over the distribution of a society's wealth and power
class consciousness
Marx's term for workers' recognition of themselves as a class unified in oppostition to capitalists and, ultimately, to capitalism itself
alienation
the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
idealtype
an abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon
tradition
refers to sentiments and beliefs passed from generation to generation
rationality
a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient means to accomplish a particular task
rationalization of society
Weber's term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the dominant mode of human thought
anomie
Durkheim's designation of a condition in which a society provides little moral guidance to individuals
mechanical soliditary
Durkheim's term for social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values that are strong among members of preindustrial societies
organic soliditary
Durkheim's term for social bonds based on specialization and interdependence that are strong among members of industrial societies
division of labor
refers to specialized economic activity