AP US History: 1812-1824 (Chapter 12)
From American Pageant version 12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism
Terms in this set (51)
*5th president, begins expansionism including Florida and Missouri, as well as reigning over the Era of Good Feelings.author of the Monroe Doctrine.
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
*The seventh President of the United States , who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Oliver Hazard Perry
United States commodore who led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie during the War of 1812
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812; the poem was later set to music and entitled 'The Star-Spangled Banner' (1779-1843)
William H. Harrison
(1841-April 4,1841) whig
*He was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
John Quincy Adams
*Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
naval officer who forced the invading British army near Plattsburgh to retreat on September 11, 1814; He saved the upper New York from conquest.
loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
Macon's Bill No. 2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
A member of Congress who wanted war with Britain before the War of 1812
Battle of Plattsburgh
1814; weaker American fleet took on a British fleet and Thomas Macdonough brought the US to victory; forcing the invading British army to retreat
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama. On March 27, 1814 - battle in which Andrew Jackson received help from the Cherokees in defeating the Creeks and opening up settlement in the southwest
Battle of the Thames
US victory in the War of 1812, led by William Henry Harrison, that ended the Indian-British alliance in the Great Lakes, which ended the British threat in the Northwest territories, Indians defeated; Tecumseh killed; Indian alliance starts to fall apart
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
James Fenimore Copper
The Leatherstocking Tales, The Pioneers, The Prairie, The Pathfinder, The Deerslayer, Last of the Mochicans (Natty Bumppo)
Leader of the Whig Party, and one of America's leading statesmen in the first half of the nineteenth century, Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union., United States politician and orator (1782-1817), Leader of the Whig Party, originally pro-North, supported the Compromise of 1850 and subsequently lost favor from his constituency
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
A euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South. The term aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War.
a tax on imported goods that is intended to protect a nation's businesses from foreign competition
1823, This was a principle of the Monroe Doctrine proclaimed by United States president James Monroe. It stated that the Americas should undergo no further colonization by European powers.
This term, associated with the Monroe Doctrine, describes the United States decision regarding their involvement in European affairs.
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
The flow of people into the ohio valley due to immigration, economic distress of the war of 1812, and cheap land.
Second Bank of the United States
established 1816 (with another 20 year charter) because of the currency problem not having a centralized bank had created.
Tightening measures by the bank after a land boom in the West, many westerners believed, cause the Panic of 1819. Many people blamed the Bank of the US.
By 1830's Bank= nation's largest financial institution. Biddle President of bank since 1823. * Jackson hated the Bank, and after winning the 1832 elections began to weaken it, by removing the government's deposits from the bank. Biddle began to raise interest taxes, justifying himself by saying that without the government's money, the resources were too little. In the end, Biddle pushed too far, losing even his supporter, and Jackson was victorious. The bank died in 1836, at the end of its charter. 3: 1775-1825
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
Tariff of 1816
FIRST true protective tariff, intended strictly to protect American goods against foreign competition.
Cohens v. Virginia
An act of Congress authorized the operation of a lottery in the District of Columbia. The Cohen brothers proceeded to sell D.C. lottery tickets in the state of Virginia, violating state law. State authorities tried and convicted the Cohens, and then declared themselves to be the final arbiters of disputes between the states and the national government.
SIGNIFICANCE: In a unanimous decision, the Court held that the Supreme Court had jurisdiction to review state criminal proceedings.
developed by Henry Clay: consisted of a national bank, a protective tariff, and the use of federal funds for internal improvements such as roads, canals, and railroads
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that THE CONSTITUTION GIVES CONGRESS ALONE THE CONTROL OF INTERSTATE COMMERCE. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Bonus Bill of 1817
Securing funding for roads and canals was hard. This bill was passed by Congress to give states $1.5 million for internal improvements, but it was immediately vetoed by Pres. Madison. In his opinion, he believed states should pay for their own improvements.
Fletcher v. Peck
(1810) the Supreme Court struck down a state law as unconstitutional. In the Yazoo Land Fraud Georgia claimed a bunch of land from the Louisiana Purchase that it had no right to claim. Georgia then sold the land to speculators who sold it to farmers. The Federal government stepped in and takes back the land and tells Georgia to give back the money but the money will just end up with the speculators and not the farmers. The Federal government says that the farmers must be paid. This was asserting federal power over state power.
"dynasty" comprised of the four of the first five presidents (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe), all of whom Virginian plantation owners
Darmouth v. Woodward
1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It freed corporations from the states which created them.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Treaty of 1818
Treaty between Britain and America, it allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with Canada, and gave both countries a joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for the next 10 years.
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Florida Purchase Treaty
In 1819 Spain ceded Florida and other claims to Oregon in exchange for Texas. This gave land to Mexico but later caused Americans to fight against Mexicans for their old land.
Harrison's victory over Tecumseh (Shawnee) in Indiana in 1811 became the slogan of his presidential bid in 1840.
United States 44-gun frigate that was one of the first three naval ships built by the United States; it won brilliant victories over British frigates during the War of 1812 and is without doubt the most famous ship in the history of the United States Navy
Land Act of 1820
was an act replacing the Land Act of 1800. It was a result of the depression, bank failures, bankruptcies, soup kitchens, unemployment, etc. of 1819. The original Land Act allowed Americans to buy 160 acres of land (minimum) at $2.00 an acre over a period of four years. The Land Act of 1820 offered less acreage, but it also cost less. It allowed Americans to buy 80 acres at $1.25 an acre. This helped to calm the westerners when they demanded cheaper land.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere, especially those of Latin America
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted. In 1821, Congress reached a compromise for Missouri's admission known as the Missouri Compromise.
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Russo-American Treaty 1824
This treaty between Russia and America set the southern borders of Russian holdings in America at the line of 54 degrees- 40', the southern tip of Alaska.
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
warship which defeated the British Warship Guerriere in 1812 -- called "Old Ironsides"
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AP US History: 1800-1812 (Chapter 11)
AP US History: 1869-1896 (Chapter 23)
AP US History: 1619-1700 (Chapter 3)
AP US History: 1763-1775 (Chapter 7)