678 terms

Human Development - Final Review - RC70

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Results from individual research participants should be
confident
The advantage of the _____ design is that it allows a researcher to synthesize data from across numerous studies.
meta-analysis
Which statement is NOT consistent with ethical research
Never tell subjects if they've been deceived
According to the American Psychological Association, researchers must
minimize risk to participants
Who is most likely interested in the study of human development?
Dr. Deal, who studies political attitude changes with age
Which does NOT constitute a "psychological force"?
heredity
Which method of measuring behavior is most effective at directly studying brain activity?
Physiological measures
Researchers studying of life satisfaction compared measures of life satisfaction over a 17-year period of time. This is an example of the use of a __________ research design.
longitudal
Which is a problem encountered by researchers assessing the effects of sociocultural forces?
changing ethic lables
Stem cells that could be used to treat diseases such as Parkinson's disease are taken from
human embryos
According to your text, which kind of developmental force has received the most attention?
psychological
The argument that each psychosocial strength has its own special age period of specific importance is the cornerstone of _____ theory of development.
Erikson's
Which theorist is best associated with an ecological approach to human development?
Bronfenbrenner
Dr. Mitchell is very interested in how individual participants' behaviors change over time. If she wants to study this, she'll have to do a ____ study.
longitudinal
Yacef is interested in determining whether children develop virtually the same way in Algeria as they do in other parts of the world. Yacef's research deals primarily with the ____ issue of human development.
universal versus context-specific development
Who developed social cognitive theory?
Bandura
Virtually all studies done in psychology rely on studying people representative of a larger group. The groups of people who participate in these studies are most commonly known as
samples
The fact that a teen growing up during the Vietnam War will develop in a different manner that a teen growing up during the Iraq War is best explained in terms of
historical context
Who is best associated with psychosocial theory?
Erikson
After completing their study, researchers send a copy of their findings to a scientific journal in hopes of having it published. This reflects which step of the research process?
communicating research results
Dr. Fletcher is attempting to determine whether adult criminals were rule breakers throughout their childhood, or whether they suddenly turned to a life of crime. Her research is most concerned with which issue of human development?
continuity versus discontinuity
If a behavior is effectively being reinforced, it will
increase frequency
The fact that hope is important in early childhood, that development of identity is most important in adolescence, and that wisdom is most important in late life is an example of
the epigenetic principle
Multidirectionality, plasticity, historical context, and multiple causation are all key features of the _____ perspective.
life-span
A subset of a population is called _____.
sample
Social cognitive theory and operant conditioning are similar in that they both
believe that experience is important in determining behavior
When Tina was given a huge salary increase, she was able to get things for her children that they had always needed and move into a nicer home. Bronfenbrenner would state that this increase in the mother's salary is an example of the impact of the children's
exosystem
What would Erikson say is the stage in life where the biggest challenge involves committing to another in a loving relationship?
young adulthood
In ecological theory, the _____ consists of the people and objects in an individual's immediate environment.
microsystem
Dr. Strauss is a development psychologist who is interested in Vygotsky's theory. What sort of forces are probably of most interest to Dr. Strauss?
sociocultural
A publishing company does a study to determine whether using a study guide for the textbook improves performance on psychology exams. In this study, grades on the psychology exams would constitute the ____ variable.
dependent
In social learning theory, imitations is referred to as ____ learning.
observational
When Alfonso says, "It would have been tough to be a father at age 21, but being one at age 28 is super," he is noting the important role that ____ factors play in human development.
life-cycle
Because Dr. Jefferson is interested in researching how people of different ages are affected by events, it would be accurate to say that Dr. Jefferson is most interested in studying ____ forces.
life-cycle
When Kayla says "It doesn't matter if they are French, Swedish, or Chinese, kids are kids," she is espousing a ____ position concerning human development.
universal
The selective optimization with compensation model is primarily associated with the ____ perspective.
life-span
Which word is the best description of the meaning of the term "reliability"?
consistency
When Dr. Bentley is asked to explain troubled adolescents, she says "The only way to explain the problems of adolescents is to study them in relation to their parents and the culture that surrounds them". Dr. Bentley is most likely a proponent of ____ theory.
ecological
The value of a ______ can range from -1.0 to 1.0
correlation coefficient
The fact that George is worried about how the recession will impact his current job status is best associated with
individual timing of life events in relation to external historical events
Daisy and Rose are identical twins who were separated at birth. Daisy was raised in the Unites States, whereas Rose spent her childhood in Austria. Which force would likely explain most of the differences between their behaviors as teen?
sociocultural
Matti finds himself unable to adjust to college because he doesn't seem to have the study skills necessary to earn passing grades. Matti's predicament would probably best be explained by
Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory
Smita studies two different cohorts over a 50-year period, testing each subject every five years. Smita is using a _____design.
sequential
An effective punishment
reduces the likelihood that a behavior will occur in the future.
Longitudinal studies are most cost-effective than cross-sectional studies.
False
Morticia finds that whenever she talks to her daughter about her obnoxious behavior, the obnoxious behavior increases in frequency. Apparently, Morticia's talks are ____ her daughter's obnoxious behavior.
reinforcing
A meta-analysis involves the synthesis of results from numerous studies.
True
Dr. Feldman is studying sibling rivalry. Each of his participants has been assessed every five years since 1970. Dr. Feldman's overall research design is best classified as
longitudinal
Alberto believes he can successfully ski down a steep mountain. Bandura would most likely say that Alberto has
high self-efficacy
You read a research article that concludes that the higher a student's self-esteem, the worse he performs in school. This sort of relationship would best be characterized as
a negative correlation
Which term does NOT belong in this group?
hereditary
Validity is to reliability as
accuracy is to consistency
Dr. Nuriama is interested in studying the way people spend their time when they are in their own homes alone. Which method is Dr. Nuriama most likely to use for this study?
naturalistic observation
When describing the development of this son Pitt, Brad says, "The best way to describe it is in terms of a slow computer with a small memory getting faster processor and more storage space". This type of description would suggest that Brad adheres to an _____ approach to development.
information-processing
Dr. Arantes uses a biopsychosocial framework for understanding human development. Which position is she most likely to endorse on the nature versus nurture issue?
nature and nurture both play important roles in human development.
The main reason why teenager mothers tend to give birth to less healthy infants than mothers on their 20s is that the teens
tend to neither seek nor receive good prenatal care
The uniting of the egg and sperm (conception) typically takes place in the
Fallopian tubes
A woman who consumes alcohol _____ has greater risk of giving birth to a baby with fetal alcohol syndrome.
moderately and consistently
What combination would result in a boy?
a 23rd pair of chromosomes with one X and one Y
A cesarean section is best thought of as
the surgical removal of a fetus
The placenta
allows for exchange of nutrients and waste
If you were looking through a microscope at a normal sperm cell, you should see ____ chromosomes.
23
Prenatal development begins
at conception
Homozygous is to heterozygous as
same is to different
The sac in which the embryo resides is called the
amnion
Human DNA is composed of a total of ___ different nucleotide bases.
4
John and Wayne have the exact same genes. This indicates that the they must be
monozygotic twins
Which prenatal assessment technique results in a picture of the fetus?
ultrasound
Nonshared environmental influences involve fores that make siblings
different from one another
Maternal stress is most likely to negatively impact a developing embryo/fetus when that stress is
chronic and extreme
The point at which a zygote burrows into the uterine walls is referred to as
implantation
Which maternal characteristic is most strongly associated with giving birth to a baby with Down Syndrome?
higher maternal age
Which is NOT considered part of prenatal development?
period of neonate
_____ occurs when an individual intentionally seeks out an environment that matches characteristics driven by his or her genes.
niche-picking
The threadlike structures in the nucleus of a cell that contain genetic material is called
chromosomes
The process of meiosis will produce either ___ sperm or ____ ova/ovum.
four; one
A person whose 23rd pair of chromosomes is XY
is male
Fraternal twins are most likely to occur in ___
women between 35 and 39 years
Which of the following diseases is caused by dominant genes?
Huntington disease
Complex traits, like intelligence or personality are due to _____.
polygenic inheritance
Many studies have shown that children cooperate when their parents' requests are firm, but made with warmth and affection. This is an example of a _____ influence.
direct
Lower-SES parents tend to emphasize ____ characteristics, while higher-SES parents focus on ____ traits.
external; psychological
Compared with large urban areas, small towns _____.
offer stronger connections between settings that affect children's lives
_____ ensures that children will develop species-typical skills under many conditions.
canalization
Compared to mothers with limited education, educated mothers ______.
engage in more verbal stimulation with their children
African-American extended-family arrangements _____.
help reduce the impact of poverty
The "Back to Sleep" campaign was aimed at reducing
SIDS
The process by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, and organizes incoming nerve impulses is referred to as
perception
_____ are chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another.
neurotransmitters
About how old will an infant be when it an perceive the same colors adults perceive?
4 months old
If a baby is breast-fed, it is more likely to
transition to solid food more easily
Terminal buttons are located on which part of a neuron?
the end of the axon
Of all the behavioral states, newborns spend the most time each day in the ____ state.
sleeping
Which statement regarding temperament is FALSE?
environmental factors are not related to emotionality
To locomote is to
move
_____ is (are) a fatty substance that surrounds the axon of a neuron.
myelin
Which person is most likely experiencing the most rapid physical growth?
Jose, who is 18 months old
A ____ is best described as an unlearned response triggered by a specific form of stimulation.
reflex
Which statement regarding the study on facial recognition by showing participants faces of adults from various groups (i.e. African, Asian, and European descent) is most accurate?
It was experimental
Parker is a typical seven-month-old. In terms of locomotion, the best he is able to do is to
sit alone
Five-day-old Max has his eyes closed and a breathing pattern that alternated between regularity and irregularity. This indicates that he is currently in the ____ newborn state.
sleeping
Jeffrey is a three-year-old who is beginning to make connections between people's thoughts, intentions, and behaviors. According to Wellman (2002), Jeffrey is developing
a theory of mind
You are being placed on a large piece of glass with a checkerboard-patterened platform underneath it. Your mother walks to the other side of this platform and calls for you to crawl to her. Many years later, you will discover that this was all part of an experiment to test your
depth perception
A visual cliff is designed to assess
depth perception
What criterion is used to indicate malnourishment in children under age five?
small size
Which most accurately reflects the advice given to individuals in developing nations who are considering bottle-feeding?
be careful, as the water used to prepare formula is often contaminated
Johanna swaddle her baby in a blanket, puts her in a car seat, and drives around the block for 30 minutes. Johanna is probably trying to
get her baby to stop crying
Left hemisphere is to cerebral cortex as
half is to whole
Who is at greatest risk of falling victim to sudden infant death syndrome?
Tina, who is 3 months old
The ____ is the wrinkled surface portion of the brain that regulates many human functions.
cerebral cortex
Which one-year-old would NOT be able to utilize retinal disparity to perceive depth?
Larry, who was born blind in one eye
Which statement concerning c0-sleeping is accurate?
It can reduce the need for elaborate rituals aimed at having children sleep in their own rooms
If you were to remove the top of an adult's skull, the first brain tissue you would see would be the
cerebral cortex
Which is the best evidence for the notion that sociocultural forces play a role in handedness?
When societal attitudes change, the incidence of left-handedness changes
Nou Ka is putting red marks on the noses of infants and placing them in front of a mirror to see how they respond. What is Nou Ka most likely researching?
self-awareness
While observing brain activity, Dr. Smith proclaims, "This brain is definitely experiencing a downsizing in the number of connections between neurons." This indicates that the brain, Dr. Smith is studying is undergoing
synaptic pruning
The fact that American-raised Hogan's exposure to the German language while in World War II impacted his brain organization is best explained by
experience-dependent growth
What response would you expect if you attempted to hand toys to a typical 13-month-old infant?
they would first grasp the object with their right hand
Marcie sings the same lullaby to her infant son every night because she believes he has learned to recognize it. Does recent research support her claim?
yes, her son would be able to recognizer a particular lullaby
The fact that an infant's perception of a stimulus is best if it stimulates more than one sense simultaneously is best describes as
intersensory redundancy
Because Akosua is a typical nine-month-old, she is most likely to use
her right and left hand interchangeably
Dr. Lewinski decides that she wants to perform a complete evaluation of the health of a newborn infant she has just delivered. Which of these is most likely to provide the most thorough assessment of the infant's health?
NBAS
Wendell can tell that the trees on the mountain are very far away, because rather than being able to see individual trees and the spaces between them, he just perceives a big green patch. Which depth cue best describes this?
texture gradient
In an effort to lower the age at which his infant son will begin to walk, Mr. Simmons puts eight-month-old Richard on a program that emphasizes leg strength. What is the most likely outcome of this intervention?
Richard will have superior leg strength and will walk earlier
What is Professor Robinson's stance on the Nature/Nurture Debate?
it is more nature
One-year-old Payton notices that when his dad, Archie, is watching football on television, he shouts at the screen. The next time a football game comes on, Payton shouts at the screen. Payton's behavior best exemplifies
imitation
Trevor is visiting his dad's office on a take-your-son-to-work day. Just after they arrive, Trevor's dad's boss bursts into the room and screams at the dad about a poorly written report he submitted. All the time that he is being berated, Trevor's dad keeps smiling. Once the boss has left, Trevor turns to his dad and says, "You really must like it when your boss hollers at you." Trevor's lack of understanding that one's internal state may not match an external state is best explained by the concept of
appearance as reality
Piaget described a scheme as a psychological structure that
organizes experience
The ____ principle of counting states that number names must be counted in the same sequence.
stable-order
Seven-month-old LeBron appears to possess a sense of "naive physics." Which of LeBron's actions would indicate that he does possess this sense?
his surprise when a basketball appears to be hanging in mid air when it is not attached to a string or other supporting device
The defining characteristic of centration is ____ thought.
narrowly focused
While attempting to correctly answer this question, you notice that you are mentally commenting to yourself about its level of difficulty. Vygotsky would refer to these internal mental remarks as
private speech
By definition, attention determines
which sensory information receives additional cognitive processing
According to Vygotsky, private speech is aimed at
self-regulation
Animism occurs when lifelike properties are attributed to
inanimate objects
According to Piaget, when a scheme is modified based on some experience, ____ has occured.
accommodation
Orienting responses tend to occur to ___ stimuli.
strong and unfamiliar
The _____ principle of counting states that there must be only one number name for each item counted.
one-to-one
____ could be defined as a diminished response to a familiar stimulus.
habituation
What would be most effective way to assess phonological memory in a two-year-old?
say the word "kitty" and have her immediately repeat the word
According to Piaget, which normally developing child would most likely have just begun to engage in preoperational thinking?
a 24-month-old
If you believed in the concept of the zone of proximal development, what advice should you give to a child who is attempting to learn how to throw a ball?
tel the child to ask a friend who knows how to throw well to help him or her out
A grammatical morpheme is a word or word ending that makes a sentence grammatically
correct
Which statement concerning Piaget's theory is true?
Piaget's theory ha been the source of ideas for teachers and stimulated a great deal of research
Piaget used the term ____ to describe the difficulty children often have in taking another person's perspective.
egocentrism
Motherese is also known as ____ speech.
infant-direct
How many of the following beliefs would be part of the "naive biology" of a typical preschooler: understanding that things grow, understanding realizing that children often resemble parents, understanding that some illness can be inherited, understanding that the insides of animals are different than the insides of inanimate objects?
4
Donny's mother has just poured tow glasses of orange juice, one for Donny and for his sister. After they are poured, Donny becomes very upset that he got less juice than his sister. Their mother points out that while Donny's glass is short, it is also wider, and thus both children have the same amount. Donny continues to protest, arguing that his juice is shorter, thus he has less juice. Piaget would explain Donny's behavior as being the result of
centration
According to the principle of guided participation, cognitive growth results from
interactions with a more skilled individual
Which is the best example of a question designed to assess autobiographical memory?
Who taught you how to ride a bike?
What can be done to improve the credibility of the testimony of a child?
Use questions that test a number of different explanations concerning the event
When two-year-old Paco is visiting his grandpa's farm, he sees his first chicken. His grandpa points to the funny red growth on the chicken's head and says, "It is called a comb." What will Paco's most likely reaction be the next time he sees a chicken?
he will refer to the bird as a "comb"
The process in which children acquire new words at such a speed that they cannot be considering all meaning for the new word is called
fast-mapping
How many phonemes are in the word "test"?
4
The core ____ hypothesis suggests that infants are born with a rudimentary understanding of the world.
knowledge
Which number illustrates the fact that in English, numbers do not all follow a regular naming pattern, thus making learning to count more difficult in English than in some other number systems?
11
How did Piaget and Vygotsky view the "journey" of cognitive development?
Vygotsky saw the journey as involving an apprenticeship driven by collaboration with others, while Piaget saw children making the journey alone
Jesse is trying to teach his younger brother James how to be a "fast gun". Before, they start, Jesse reminds himself that James will need a lot of direction at first, but it is critical to not give more help than is needed. Jesse's plan provides an excellent example of the strategy of
scaffolding
Applying rules to a word that is actually an exception to the rule constitutes
overregularization
Three-year-old Hamid know what the words "cat" and "dog" mean. One day his babysitter comes in with a box o kittens and a hamster and says, "Isnt' he furry"? Since Hamid does not know the words "hamster" and "furry", he will most likely
classify the hamster as a "furry"
Tucker is asked to count the toes on his left foot and report the total. Tucker says, "1, 4, 5, 2, 3. There are three!" Tucker is demonstrating the ___ principle of counting.
cardinality
Theory on the emergence of autobiographical memory suggests that in order to improve the autobiographical memory skill of his or her child, a parent would most likely
begin to encourage the child to talk about what happened at school each day
The mutual shared understanding among participants in an activity is referred to as
intersubjectivity
What is the correct sequence (from first to last) of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
When Andy bumps into a table, he says to it, "You bumped into me because you are mean". Andy is exhibiting
animism
A judgement of depth using motion parallax relies heavily on the ____ of an object.
speed
Molly is buying decorations for her child's nursery. She is very concerned about having different colors that the baby will be able to differentiate the day she is born. Molly is attempting to stimulate the child's
cones
How does temperament contribute to attachment?
Infants with difficult temperaments are less likely to form secure attachments
What advice should you give to a parent who wants his or her two-month-old to form a secure attachment?
"Be responsive and caring."
Which would not be considered a basic emotion?
Pride
Dr. Ginesberg's lecture on attachment concludes that babies express behavior that makes it more likely they will form attachments to adults because in the past, infants that expressed these behaviors were the infants who survived. Dr. Ginesberg is presenting a(n) _________ approach to attachment.
evolutionary
After playing by herself for a while young Annika smiles when she sees the face of her father. What term best describes this response?
Social smile
When three-year-old Juan who is male, says "I'm going to grow up to be a mommy," he is failing to demonstrate
gender stability.
According to Erikson how would parents establish trust in their six-month-old?
Consistently responding to the child's needs
Which child has most successfully resolved the "basic trust versus mistrust" stage of psychosocial development?
Brian, who trusts most people but is still somewhat wary of others
Which person is most likely using a gender stereotype to describe Erin?
Roddy: "Erin is like all females, intelligent and understanding."
One of the most effective ways for Dottie to get her child to engage in altruistic behavior is for Dottie to
model the behavior herself.
Who would be most likely to argue that smiling is a common social response because over the history of humanity individuals who smiled were liked more and allowed to have children?
An evolutionary psychologist
A secure infant attachment predicts _____________ during later childhood.
more capable peer interactions
Which is the last of Bowlby's four phases in the growth of attachment?
Reciprocal relationships
David is a five-year-old who knows that he is a boy and that he is a boy whether he's playing with his toys or his sister's toys. This indicates that David has developed
gender constancy.
Which combination best predicts an insecure attachment?
Insensitive mother and low-quality daycare
Kyle and Sharon have a young daughter and a young son. As typical parents they most likely treat their children the same except when it deals with
rough-and-tumble play.
The reason that students are expected to act differently than professors is because they represent different
social roles.
Which term does not fit with the notion of "constricting" during play?
Support
Which baby is most likely to be insecurely attached?
Jessica, whose parents tend to not respond to her crying
According to gender-schema theory, in order to decide where to learn more about an object, a child must first
decide whether the object is associated with females or males.
Michelle and Warren are building a playhouse. Michelle says to Warren, "How about I help you with your part, then you help me with mine?" This offer would be an example of
an enabling action.
Which exemplifies the notion of parent as social director during play?
A parent who actively encourages his or her child to play with others
On her way to visiting Malaysia for the first time, Joan wonders what the people there will expect from her during their interactions. Joan is concerned about
social roles.
Four-year-old Luticia pretends to be a doctor and has begun to realize that she needs to be responsible and cooperate with her parents. According to Erikson, this indicates that she is beginning to achieve a sense of
purpose.
Which quote is most reflective of the use of a gender schema?
"Is soccer for boys or for girls?"
Carmela is struggling in the "autonomy versus shame and doubt" stage of psychosocial development. What aspect of her psychosocial development will result from her successful resolution of this conflict?
Will
Which normally maturing infant would be most likely to have just formed first true attachment?
Hobbs, who is 8 months old
Katie is upset with her friend Leslie. In order to "get even" with her, she tries to make Leslie's other friends mad at Leslie by making up stories about her. What is this sort of behavior called?
Relational aggression
Dwight's statement, "I am a boy" is an example of
gender labeling.
Research results have provided evidence that the ability to distinguish facial features associated with different emotions first develops as early as _____ of age.
4 months
Which would least likely be found in a description of "boys play?"
Cooperative
When Faith's mother leaves her alone in a room, she does not move and appears a bit dazed. Faith is most likely exhibiting a(n) ____ attachment.
disorganized
Which aspect of the Sunshine Daycare Center's advertisement is inconsistent with your text's description of quality daycare?
New, energetic staff each day
Parents who incorporate ____ into their discipline are most likely to encourage altruistic behavior.
reasoning
Urvashi decides to help her friend find her lost cat because her friend is likely to give her a reward. This is an example of
prosocial behavior.
Seven-month-old Gavin seems very content being held by his mother. When the neighbor from across the street comes over to greet Gavin, he turns his head away from the neighbor and starts to cry. What term best explains Gavin's response to the neighbor?
Stranger wariness
Which sort of solitary play would most likely be unhealthy?
Watching other children play without joining them
Elise has been playing alone, upset, by herself in her room. When her mother returns, she is not comforted but seems angry with her mother. Elise is most likely exhibiting a(n) ____ attachment.
resitant
Bud and Lou are both playing with blocks. Though they are playing, they smile at each other and trade blocks from time to time. It is most likely that Bud and Lou are involved in
simple social play.
Tonka is actively playing with his toy truck when his mom accidentally drops a towel she is carrying directly on top of the vehicle. As soon as the vehicle is covered, Tonka turns his head away and calmly begins playing with another toy. Tonka's reaction best illustrates a lack of
object permanence.
The fact that American-raised Hogan's exposure to the German language while in World War II impacted his brain organization is best explained by
experience-dependent growth.
A child whose vocabulary is dominated by names of objects, actions, or persons is said to have a(n) ____ style.
referential
Twelve-month-old Callum is barely able to walk a few steps before losing his balance and falling down. What is the term that best describes Callum's current ability to move around?
Toddling
Piaget argued that the first reactions by newborns were
reflexive.
Which statement is true regarding basic emotions?
They are experienced by people in all cultures.
How could a parent best encourage attachment in a four-mont-old?
Learn to judge when the child is receptive to interactions and when he or she should be left alone.
From an infant's perspective, what is the most critical factor in establishing a secure attachment?
Having a dependable caregiver
Dr. Dundee believes that he has discovered a new childhood emotion that is particular to certain native Australian cultures. If he is accurate, he has most likely discovered a new
complex emotion.
Securely attached infants tend to show ___________ when reunited with a caregiver.
a need for a brief interaction
Which is true of childhood play?
Boys tend to favor constricting and girls tend to favor enabling
Results from the Family Lifestyles Project indicate that children raised by counterculture parents are different from children raised by parents with more traditional values in that
they have few stereotypes regarding occupations.
Parental responses to infant crying and laughing are part of the _____ forces involved in the biopsychosocial explanation of attachment.
sociocultural
Pride, embarrassment, and guilt are all examples of
complex emotions.
Which is the best example of a psychological force in the development of attachment?
An infant's internal working model
_____ psychology focuses on behaviors that represent successful adaptations to the environment.
evolutionary
Elita is feeling guilty about sending her 18-
No, as long as Elita provides "good mothering" when she's with the child at home.
Which would be the least sophisticated way for a child to deal with fear of a doctor?
Hug mommy when the doctor approaches
Which thought has been shown to increase the odds of a child engaging in an altruistic act?
"I think I have what they need."
Which child is most likely to act altruistically toward Gunter, who is having a very difficult time learning how to skate?
Tetsuro, who is feeling happy
In the United States, ____ Americans tend to score highest on intelligence tests.
Asian
How could Erbert use combinational reasoning to determine how many different types of sandwiches could be made from eight available condiments?
He could map out all possible combinations on a sheet of paper.
Which is not a typical characteristic of a school that produces high-achieving students?
A heavy emphasis on nonacademic activities
Memory organization is defined as
structuring related items together in memory.
You are a principal who is interviewing potential teachers for your school. Because your highest priority is student achievement, you should be most concerned that the teachers you hire
have good classroom management skills.
Newt has a mental age of 10. That means Newt
passed test problems that an average 10-year-old would pass.
To be considered gifted usually requires an intelligence test score of at least _____.
130
A good teacher
takes responsibility for what their students learn.
Text author Robert Kail won tickets to the Indianapolis 500 auto race by listing all the possible words that could be created from the words "SAFE RACE", which is an example of
combinatorial reasoning.
When asked to describe his specialization, Oscar says, "I am mainly interested in developing ways of measuring intelligence and personality factors." Given this description, Oscar is most likely a
psychometrician.
Who is most likely to be diagnosed and treated for ADHD?
European-American children
Which data suggest the strongest link between heredity and intelligence?
Identical twins whose IQ scores correlate at the +.9 level
Which of Gardner's types of intelligences is least likely to be found on a traditional psychometric theory-based test of intelligence?
Musical
Which statement concerning sex differences in height at age 11 is most accurate?
At age 11, females tend to be slightly taller than males.
By definition, intellectual disability involves both a below-average intelligence and
poor adaptive behaviors.
Dr. Jourdan is devising an intelligence test containing items that relate to experiences common to all people around the world. Dr. Jourdan is most likely attempting to develop
a culture-fair intelligence test.
Exceptional talent is the product of
both nature and nurture
What is the most simplistic strategy for adding/counting?
Count by extending one finger for each item and then counting the total number of fingers extended on each hand
Which task would an average elementary-age girl perform better than an average elementary-age boy?
Writing her name in cursive
Which statement about youth sports is true?
Sports involvement can lead to improved social skills.
Whose intelligence test was the first to use the concept of an intelligence quotient?
Lewis Terman
Binet and Simon originally developed the concept of "mental age" as a criterion for helping them distinguish
children who would be able to learn in school from those who needed special instruction.
Which behavior indicates that Mandy is using a knowledge-transforming strategy when writing her psychology term paper?
When, before she writes anything, she decides that the point of the paper would be to make her psychology teacher mad
In which would the letter "p" be fastest recognized by an individual who spoke English?
Help
According to the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD, the most effective single treatment for hyperactivity is through the use of
medication.
In which physical activity would the average 11-year-old prepubescent girl have a distinctive advantage over an 11-year-old prepubescent boy?
Jumping a rope
During ____, information is always embellished.
elaboration
Data from Project Head Start
supported the belief that environmental factors can impact an individual's IQ.
Which appears to be the most critical element underlying mathematical learning disabilities?
Difficulty in comparing and understanding quantities
Takeo is a Japanese individual trying to learn English. The first time he sees the word "psychology," he has no idea what this combination of letters means. Takeo's difficulties are best described as centering on
word recognition.
Which provides the best example of cognitive self-regulation?
Deciding that using flashcards helps memorization of vocabulary terms
Francisco is having a hard time remembering that Madison is the capital of Wisconsin. He also knows that his father will be upset if Francisco flunks his test of state capitals. Suddenly, Francisco sees a connection between these two events and realizes that he can recall the capital of Wisconsin by remembering that his dad will be mad at him if he can't remember (mad at son = Madison). In this example, Francisco is clearly using ____ to aid in his memory.
elaboration
If Fiona is a typical six-year-old, she would most likely
weigh about 45 pounds and be about 45 inches tall.
Donovan is really into football and is able to remember all of the professional teams because he has mentally sorted them by division. This indicates that Donavan is using ____ to help him recall the information.
organization
One myth concerning ADHD is that
it is typically "outgrown" in adolescence.
Beginning readers tend to
use the "sound it out" strategy first and the "retrieve word from memory" method second.
Which describes one of the major criticisms of Piaget's theory concerning formal operational thought?
Adolescents do not appear as cognitively competent as Piaget thought.
Knowledge-telling and knowledge-transforming are types of _____ strategies.
writing
Yaakov has a problem. Though he is of normal intelligence and does well in most classes, he struggles tremendously in math. Yaakov is most likely suffering from
a learning disability.
By traditional definition, how many of the following 16-year-old children could be classified as "intellectually disabled" (Note: all IQ scores based on Stanford-Binet test results.): Kirk, IQ = 120; McCoy, IQ = 100; Chekhov, IQ = 80; Sulu, IQ = 60?
1
Which provides the best example of active reading?
Realizing that some words have multiple meanings
Francisco is having a hard time remembering that Madison is the capital of Wisconsin. He also knows that his father will be upset if Francisco flunks his test of state capitals. Suddenly, Francisco sees a connection between these two events and realizes that he can recall the capital of Wisconsin by remembering that his dad will be mad at him if he can't remember (mad at son = Madison). In this example, Francisco is clearly using ____ to aid in his memory.
elaboration
The best example of metamemory would involve knowing that
10-word list of unfamiliar foreign words will be harder to recall than a 20-word list of familial words.
In reading, the process of identifying a unique pattern of letters is called
word recognition.
The basic premise of a hereditary view concerning the nature of intelligence is that
the more closely related two individuals are, the more positively correlated their scores will be.
Bea has tremendous insight into "deep" questions like, "Why are we born to die?" According to Gardner, Bea would rate high on a scale of ____ intelligence.
existential
A formal operational thinker and a concrete operational thinker are both presented with three beakers containing red liquid and are told that some combination of the liquids will produce a green liquid. How would the manner in which the formal thinker solves the problem most likely differ from that of the concrete thinker?
Formal thinkers would be more systematic when combining the liquids and eliminating combinations.
On a(n) _____ thinking test, the goal is to use information to come to the one standard, correct answer.
convergent
IQ scores are
good predictors of school success and occupational success.
The drug Ritalin that is often prescribed for children with ADHD is a type of
stimulant.
Binet and Simon developed the first objective intelligence test in order to
identify children who would need special help in school.
According to Sternberg, ____ ability is most heavily focused on problem analysis.
analytical
Which statement concerning the diagnosis of ADHD is true?
Boys are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than girls.
If asked to list key symptoms for ADHD, you should avoid saying,
inarticulation."
Metamemory is defined as an individual's
intuitive understanding of memory.
Phonological processing involves the conversion of
printed letters into sound.
Concrete operational thinkers are unable to reverse their thinking.
False
Why do children in Asian countries like China or Japan tend to recall less from their early years than children from North American countries?
They are not given the same amount of opportunities to talk with parents about past events.
Five-year-old Badia's parents are not taking care of his medical needs. Badia is suffering from
neglect
Researchers have found that watching ________ increased the likelihood of a child behaving in a prosocial manner.
Mister Rogers' Neighborhood
Mabel likes to hit other children for no other purpose than to see them get hurt and feel scared. What term best describes Mabel's behavior?
Hostile aggression
Which social condition appears to foster maltreatment of children?
Poverty
Anjali's parents are divorced. Anjali spends weekends with his father and the rest of the week with his mother. In legal terms, this arrangement is an aspect of what is known as
joint custody.
When all of his buddies call home to tell their parents they will be getting home late from the game, Dieter doesn't bother, saying, "My mom and dad are too busy to care about me. They don't care how late I'm out—in fact, they never even ask where I'm going." If Dieter is right, his parents are most likely exhibiting a(n) ____ parenting style.
uninvolved
Sally and Dan are quick to express affection toward their son, Zach, and accept most of his behavior. In fact, Zach has never once been punished. Sally and Dan are exhibiting a(n) ____ style of parenting.
permissive
Liam is learning the values, behaviors, and roles of his culture. In other words, Liam is experiencing
socialization.
Doreen is a single, divorced mother of a five-year-old boy. Will remarrying be good for her son?
Yes, if the step-father is warm and involved
What statement about time-out is true?
It bypasses many of the pitfalls of punishment.
In which situation is Rita most likely to be influenced by peer pressure?
Determining what clothes to wear to the prom
Hiroko watches shows that display and encourage being friendly and helpful to other people. After watching this, Hiroko is more likely to
act friendly.
When Esther misbehaves, her mother makes her go sit by herself in a small, quiet, unstimulating area of the house. Esther's mother is probably using
time-out.
What has research shown to be useful in preventing child abuse?
Early childhood intervention programs
What is the best advice you could give to an adolescent trying to gain popularity among his or her school peers?
"Be nice."
Does watching TV violence really affect the behavior of children?
Yes, it tends to be associated with more aggressive behavior.
Playing violent video games while identifying with aggressive characters in the game ____ aggressive behavior.
is positively correlated with
The use of ________ in descriptions of people tends to increase as we age.
personality traits
Amy describes her friend Duffy by saying, "She's fun to be around because she's funny and has good ideas, but she's often insensitive to how others feel." Amy is most likely about ____ years old.
16
When Ki-Jana asks his parents if he can buy a car, his parents say no but sit down and explain to him the reasoning behind their decision. His parents express affection toward him and tell him that they may consider the matter at some later time. Which parenting style best describes Ki-Jana's parents?
Authoritative
The _____ parenting style is best described as both controlling and warm.
authoritative
Which aspect of friendship tends to be new to children aged 8-11?
Trust
Who possesses a characteristic that makes them less likely to be a friend with 12-year-old Isabel, who is Mexican American?
Tina, who views school differently
In China, only children are most accurately described as
"similar to kids with siblings."
Which best exemplifies a "blended family?"
A family in which a divorced mom with a son marries a widowed dad with two daughters
By far the most frequent sort of child abuse would be categorized as
neglect.
Laura is 14 years old, and is extremely upset about the fact that someone made fun of her in class. Laura is most likely to seek support from
her close friends.
Which adopted child is most likely to have the most problems?
Lydia, who was adopted when she was eight years old
Children who are rejected by their peers have often been
disciplined inconsistently by their parents.
Why did the harmful impacts of divorce appear to have increased in the 1990s?
The gap between single- and two-parent family incomes was widening.
After having read a book on parenting styles, if you wished to raise a friendly and self-reliant child, you would try to adopt a(n) _____ parenting style.
authoritative
Mary and Orlaith are high school students. Orlaith gets mostly "A" grades, and Mary gets mostly "B"s. Which of these aspects of their pasts is most likely?
Orlaith watched more Sesame Street than Mary.
The statement, "we share our feelings" is most likely to be made by a
15-year-old.
Which explanation best explains the reason for changes in prejudice during adolescence?
Adolescents develop a more positive view of their own group and a more negative view of other groups.
As a "neglected" child, Juno should expect to be _____ by her peers.
ignored
Which statement indicates that co-rumination is occurring?
"I know that you are also having trouble staying slim."
Liked is to popular children as disliked is to ____ children.
rejected
Which statement best exemplifies ego resilience?
"Even though I have never been in this situation before, I can handle it."
Rather than simply ordering his son to take out the garbage, Ahmad says, "Son, take out the garbage now. It's really full and I'm getting ready to make dinner, so I'll need more space in the garbage bags." Ahmad's statement is an example of
direct instruction.
The two main dimensions of parental behavior are
warmth and control.
What basic premise underlies Chinese parenting?
Keep your emotions in check.
As a new step-father, Jackson should
show interest, but not get too involved in the lives of his new step-children.
A permissive parent is best thought of as
warm and uncontrolling.
Who is most likely to spank her child?
Tulip, who is an American parent
Once the youngest sibling gets to be about ____, he or she will start talking more to older siblings than to mom.
4 years old
When you hear someone say, "Those neighbor kids are neglected. Even when the parents are home, they do virtually nothing," which parenting style should come to mind?
Uninvolved
Researchers have found that watching _________ increased the likelihood that a child gained important mathematics skills.
The Dinosaur Train
In China, only children are most accurately described as
"similar to kids with siblings."
Which pairing is most likely to fall victim to the "negative reinforcement trap"?
Mother and son
In which way are adopted children different from children living with their biological parents?
They are more likely to have problems adjusting to school
Incorrect They have more maladjusted mother-infant attachments.
They are more likely to have problems adjusting to school.
Jane is identified by others at school as being part of "The Elite," a fairly large group of students who are very popular, get good grades, and are involved in extracurricular activities. "The Elite" are best described as a
crowd.
Helen is upset because she thinks that her teacher views her argument with Mary as being silly. According to Selman, Helen is most likely in the ____ stage of perspective-taking.
third-person
Yuri is the leader of a group called "The Wannabes." All the other members know that Yuri is in charge, and they respect that. What is the best term to describe this type of group structure?
Dominance hierarchy
Nathan suddenly lets out a high-pitched cry, lowers his eyebrows, and purses his lips. You would be safest in assuming that Nathan is
experiencing pain.
In the United States, about ____ out of every 1,000 adolescents dies each year.
1
On which point would Kohlberg and Gilligan agree?
Moral reasoning develops across distinct stages
Postconventional moral thinking is characterized by judgments made according to a(n)
personal code of behavior.
Research on the relationship between moral thinking and moral behaviors has shown that when making moral decisions, delinquent adolescents
tend to reason at lower levels than nondelinquents.
Which of the following factors seems to be most involved in timing of menarche in many industrialized nations over the past 150 years?
Nutrition
Research using "Ben's dilemma" involving his attempt to get a loan to help him get to a wedding provided evidence that
moral reasoning is influenced by culture.
Gilligan's original complaint against Kohlberg's theory was that it
didn't accurately reflect the moral development of women.
You are reviewing a research article with the title, "Women and the drive to care for others." Who is the most likely author of this material?
Gilligan
The illusion of invulnerability is best demonstrated by
unprotected sex by teens.
Overweight teens are most at risk for developing ____ later in life.
diabetes
The fact that 250-pound Robyn's basal metabolic rate affects her weight supports the role of ____ in obesity.
genes
Which best describes the typical response to body image during puberty?
Females worry more about appearance and are more dissatisfied with their appearance.
The negative effects associated with being an early-maturing female have been found to be offset by
having supportive parents.
Estrogen is directly released by the
ovaries.
During puberty, changes in physical maturity that are not directly linked to reproduction are referred to as ____ sex characteristics.
secondary
Menarche is best described as the onset of
menstruation.
As a typical U.S. teen, Amber is most likely consuming
too many calories and too little iron.
The two general types of physical development associated with puberty include
bodily changes and sexual maturation.
The speed at which the body consumes calories is referred to as
basal metabolic rate.
____ is best defined as physical changes that mark the transition from childhood to young adulthood.
Puberty
The illusion of invulnerability is best defined by the phrase,
"dangerous but fun."
What basic moral question underlies the Heinz dilemma?
Can stealing be justified?
During adolescence,
both brain myelination and synaptic pruning near completion.
In the United States, about ____ out of every 1,000 adolescents dies each year.
1
According to Kohlberg,
the reason underlying a moral decision is more important than the action taken.
At which age are most people operating at the postconventional level of moral reasoning?
There is no age group in which most individuals are reasoning
Which best describes the "paternal investment theory" of puberty?
Dads have the greatest impact on the timing of early puberty, and having a highly involved dad appears to delay its onset.
Primary sex characteristic changes are those directly impacting
reproduction.
Anabolic steroids are most chemically similar to
testosterone.
_____ nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an irrational fear of being overweight and a persistent refusal to eat.
anorexia
The adjusted ratio of weight to height is known by the abbreviation _____.
BMI
In a group of normally developing 18- to 20-year-olds, the greatest percentage would be operating at stage ____ of moral reasoning.
three
Ashley is an anorexic girl who has lost significant weight yet refuses to seek any treatment. This is a potentially life-threatening decision, as about ____ percent of adolescents in her situation die of symptoms related to the eating disorder.
15
Estrogen is to androgen as
ovaries are to testes.
Jamine comes upon a fight in the street. Which would indicate that she is in Gilligan's first stage of moral reasoning?
Her concern that someone in the fight might hit her
The maturation of the _____ lobe during adolescence is related to improvements in inhibiting of behaviors.
frontal
Research indicates that most adults operate at Kohlberg's ____ level of moral reasoning.
conventional
If you believed in the concept of the zone of proximal development, what advice should you give to a child who is attempting to learn how to throw a ball?
Tell the child to ask a friend who knows how to throw well to help him or her out
The phenomenon whereby an individual believes that he or she is like an actor on a stage, who is under constant watch by others, is referred to as
the imaginary audience.
Adolescent egocentrism involves excessive
self-absorption.
Teenagers are less likely to engage in sexual activity when parents
monitor their activities.
Which of the following 15-year-olds is least likely to drink alcohol?
Barbara, whose parents sometimes drink small amounts with meals
When an individual's personality type and job match, they tend to be
more productive in the short run and have more stable career paths in the long run.
Life-course persistent antisocial acts
emerge early in life and continue throughout development.
Yasmine has excellent verbal skills and relates well on an interpersonal level. According to Holland, Yasmine likely has a(n) ____ personality type.
social
Which statement concerning self-esteem is true?
A harmonious child-parent relationship tends to lead to higher levels of self- esteem in adolescents.
Only ____ percent of youth meet the criteria for life-course persistent antisocial behavior.
5
Which statement concerning cigarette smoking is true?
Teens will tend to start smoking if they believe that it is okay to smoke.
While there are different types of dating violence, threats always qualify as ____ violence.
emotional
Which comment accurately reflects the relationship between adolescent mental health and part-time jobs in excess of 15-20 hours per week?
Teens with such jobs tend to be more likely to experience depression and anxiety than their peers.
Which teenager is most "at risk" for engaging in delinquent behavior?
Kermit, who is unable to significantly delay his need for personal gratification
____ percent of US high school seniors report drinking alcohol in the previous year, and about ____ percent report having been drunk.
Sixty-six; 50
About ____ percent of male and female teenagers identify themselves as homosexual.
5
Which adolescents report that they are usually happy?
Most adolescents around the world
Learning about one's culture and heritage sets the foundation for a person's ____ identity.
ethnic
Which best summarizes results from the development of self-esteem?
Developmental changes in self-esteem vary by domain.
Sixteen-year-old Paris's motto is, "It's all about me!" This belief fits well with the concept of adolescent
egocentrism.
James is a typical adolescent. You would expect that he
relies on his parents for advice.
When asked, "What do you want to be when you grow up?" 10-year-old Sanjay says, "My dad says I should be a doctor, so I guess that's what I'll be." According to Marcia, Sanjay is best thought of as being in a state of identity
foreclosure.
Marcel's parents often ask about his day at school, set reasonable rules, and provide guidance when he is having difficulty in school. How likely is Marcel to smoke cigarettes?
Not at all likely, as his parents have strict rules against smoking
According to Erikson, a teenager is most likely to achieve his or her identity by
using hypothetical reasoning skills.
Jinfa was born in the United States. His father is African and his mother is Japanese. If he is in the third state of ethnic identity development, he would most likely consider himself as
American with roots in both Africa and Japan.
When Seuss is asked what she wants to do with her life, she says, "My parents really want me to be an author, so I'm going to be an author." In doing so, Seuss is exhibiting Marcia's ____ type of identity status.
foreclosure
During the implementation phase of career development, a person
takes a job and learns firsthand about a career.
Crystallization involves using one's emerging identity as the basis for assessing
possible careers.
Which of the following is exhibiting a moratorium in the process of developing an identity?
Cindy, who has changed careers several times
Which best describes the thought process underlying adolescent egocentrism?
Adolescents are much more interested in their own feelings than those of others.
The spotlight research on dating violence indicated that
having a friend who perpetrated dating violence increased the risk of a boy being violent while dating.
While in the _________ identity status stage, a person is examining numerous alternatives but finds none totally satisfactory
moratorium
In individuals from ethnic minority groups, identification with the mainstream culture
sometimes strengthens one's own ethnic identity and sometimes weakens it.
Which statement best describes the long-term outcomes of working a stressful job during the teen years?
Better able to cope with stressful jobs as adults
As a typical American teen, Ralph is most likely to describe his first sex partner as
a casual date.
According to Super's theory, what is the correct order of the phases of career development?
Crystallization, specification, implementation
The emphasis in the second phase of ethnic identity formation is on
exploration of one's heritage.
After exploring a number of career options, Antonio chooses to become an accountant. According to Marcia, what level of identity status is Antonio exhibiting?
Achievement
What is the defining characteristic of adolescent-limited antisocial behavior?
Engaging in minor criminal acts over a short period of time
Which statement concerning antisocial/delinquent behavior and biology is true?
Inherited temperament may increase risk for aggressive behavior
How many of the following can contribute to an adolescent's level of self-esteem: doing well in school, having parents who discipline, being liked by one's peers?
3
According to Holland, a person who likes physical labor and solving concrete problems is said to have a(n) _____ personality type.
realistic
Young adults are especially susceptible to acquiring AIDS because compared to older adults, they are
more likely to use intravenous drugs.
Which statement concerning the origins of sexual orientation is true?
Lesbian attraction to the same sex tends to occur later than gay male same-sex attraction
Abby is 16, and Andy is 5. Both exhibit egocentrism. How is this egocentrism most likely to differ between them?
Abby knows that other people have different perspectives than her own.
Nan is an individual who enjoys working outside, taking care of park lands, planting trees, and building forest trails. Which of Holland's types best describes Nan's interests?
Realistic
Effective interventions for teenage smoking include all of the following components, except
enforcing a strict discipline system throughout the school.
Statistically speaking, who has the lowest risk of teenage pregnancy?
Polly, who is European American
A major theme of most date rape prevention workshops is to
establish good communication about sex.
When Molly hears that several people in her geometry class think she's great, it is likely to
increase her self-esteem.
Twenty-year-old Talisker emigrated to the United States from Scotland at age 12. What is his most likely ethnic identity?
He continues to see himself as a Scot
The attitudes, behaviors, and values that we believe make us unique individuals are called our
self-concept.
Nicholas and Alexandra are typical American teenagers. How would their descriptions concerning their first sexual experience most likely differ?
Alexandra's peers would be more likely to express some disapproval concerning her behavior.
Julio and Kari are babies who are the same age but very different from each other. Julio has the ability to focus his attention on a task, while Kari is very easily distracted. Julio and Kari differ on which dimension of temperament?
Effortful control
Which of the following individuals is most likely to effectively integrate emotion into their thinking?
A male in his mid 40s
Jimmy goes to a party with his college buddies and has six beers in a row. Jimmy's behavior would be best classified as
binge drinking.
The fact that Molly's spatial performance has declined while her verbal abilities have improved is support for the notion that intelligence
is multidirectional.
A doctor is most likely to recommend that you consume higher levels of ____ to increase your HDL level.
fiber
Which best reflects a "social clock?"
Donald, who wants to be a millionaire by age 30
Which constitutes the highest level of thinking in adulthood?
Postformal thought
In the United States, about ____ percent of young adults ages 25 to 44 consume alcohol occasionally.
65
Who is most likely to be a binge drinker?
Ryan, who is a member of a fraternity
Which of Brittney's actions best exemplifies an attempt to achieve adult status?
Her two marriages
Lai and Mei are sisters. As they have gotten older, Lai's cognitive skills have improved while Mei's have declined. This is evidence for the __________ of abilities.
interindividual variability
Kali has a theory of intelligence that views it as being a combination of several factors such as fine motor skills, cognitive ability, and emotional control. Kali's theory is
multidimensional.
Bernice is very interested in studying how the energy needs of the human body change through the life span. In other words, Bernice is interested in studying
metabolism.
What is BMI?
An index related to total body fat
Intellectual multidirectionality is based on the premise that
with age, some aspects of intelligence improve while others may decline.
Nicola is 18 years old and engages in many risky behaviors. For example, she drives very fast and recklessly, and does not use any protection when having sex. If Nicola is a typical adolescent, these behaviors will ____ when she gets older.
decrease in frequency
All four of these people successfully quit smoking. Which person's method was most typical of successful quitters?
Wendy, who quit on her own
Mr. Brady's talents as an architect are mostly due to his ability to visualize buildings in three-dimensions are they are being designed. This suggests that Mr. Brady has outstanding _____ abilities.
spatial orientation
Which best describes the marker for transition into adulthood in most Western societies?
Markers that are loosely defined and can consist of any number of events
People who quit smoking after smoking for a long time
show significant improvements in their health.
Whose cancer was most likely related to smoking?
Barbara's, who has lung cancer
Dr. Merchant points to a picture of elephants and asks you to describe what you see in the picture. Dr. Merchant is probably assessing
word fluency.
One of the most likely reasons for the typical developmental path for crystallized intelligence is that
practice tends to improve performance.
_____ selves represent who we could become, regardless of whether that person is good or bad.
possible
Who would Erikson say is most capable of true intimacy?
Aileen, who has a clear sense of identity
Which of the following impacts the development of social beliefs least?
Intellectual differences
Who is most likely experiencing a "quarterlife crisis?"
22-year-old Aruba, who just graduated from college
The ability to understand relationships between concepts and to respond adaptively to new situations is termed _____ intelligence.
fluid
Which approach to diminishing binge drinking on college campuses appears to be least effective?
Efforts based on limiting access to alcohol
A baseball coach tells a pitcher, "With a little training, I think that you could learn to throw a knuckleball." This provides a good example of a belief in the _______ of an ability.
plasticity
Who is likely to be the least healthy?
Thales, who lives in poverty
The belief that "marriage is more important than a career" is most prevalent among which age group?
Older adults
Sheryl's physician Dr. Crow has just indicated that she needs to begin to take statins. If Dr. Crow is competent, you would know that Sheryl
has a high level of LDL.
Based solely on their BMI, how many of the following people are at risk for health-related diseases: Dick, BMI = 20; Flick, BMI = 40; Hick, BMI = 60; Nick, BMI = 80?
3
Identity is related to closeness for all groups except
cross-sex friendships for women.
Who is most likely to believe that she will achieve her hoped-for self?
Allie, who is 25 years old
Which is not a factor identified by Schaie as a variable that helps reduce the risk of cognitive decline in old age?
Being single
Which statement concerning secondhand smoke is true?
Hundreds of thousands of children suffer from lung problems annually from secondhand smoke each year
As a female growing up in a developing nation, Ozemena's transition to adulthood is most likely to be based on her ability to
procreate.
Which constitutes an "extended family?"
Two parents, one child, and one grandfather
Which statement about single parents is true?
Divorced single parents often experience feelings of failure and guilt
A relative strength of online friendships involves the ability of the user to
control the level of intimacy in the relationship.
The purpose of a "covenant marriage" is to make _____ to occur.
divorce less likely
Surveys indicate that nearly ________ couples in the Australia meet online.
1 in every 10
How many of the following are rights that some countries extend to cohabiting partners: pension rights, insurance benefits, distribution of property?
3
Which might best be characterized as a "trial marriage?"
Premarital cohabitation
Ken and Barbie are sexually active singles who are discussing the idea of moving in together. They are definitely contemplating
cohabitation.
Which married couple is most likely to get divorced?
Beavis and Madonna, who are American
Siegfried and Roy have been friends for many years. In the past few months, however, they seem to have less in common, and Roy has been thinking more about hanging out with a potential new friend. Siegfried and Roy appear to be in the ____ stage of friendship development.
deterioration
Surveys indicate that nearly ________ couples in Spain and the United Kingdom meet online.
1 in every 20
Katie and Rob are seeing a marriage counselor, Dr. McMurray, to ask her advice about how to save their relationship. Dr. McMurray tells them that the reason they are having trouble is because "neither of you perceive that you are getting as much out of the relationship as you are putting into it." This statement indicates that Dr. McMurray is a proponent of
exchange theory.
The "empty nest" is most likely to occur for parents in
middle age.
Lisa and Phil are more likely to end up divorced if they are
from different ethnic backgrounds.
Compared to 1970, the number of cohabitating couples in the United States had ____ by the year 2000.
increased significantly
Ashley is 35 years old and just had her first baby. She is less likely to ____ than younger mothers.
be anxious about being a parent
Expression of negative emotions toward a spouse is positively correlated with
early divorce.
The average age at which a woman gives birth to her first child has changed because of _____ and women postponing having children for career purposes.
a decrease in teen birthrate
Surveys indicate that nearly ________ couples in the United States meet online.
1 in every 5
What is the most common type of family in the world?
Extended family
Worldwide, about 10 percent to about ____ percent of women report being physically assaulted or raped.
70
Which statement concerning homosexual and heterosexual couples in the United States is true?
Both lesbian and heterosexual females view money as a way to maintain a sense of independence from their partners.
The primary difference between limited and premarital cohabitation involves
intention to marry.
When discussing his new girlfriend, Mickey says, "I can tell her everything about myself." Mickey clearly feels ____ toward his girlfriend.
intimacy
Rhett and Scarlet have a relationship characterized by a lifetime of marriage characterized by little physical desire and no sharing of thoughts or feelings. This relationship is best described as one of strong
commitment.
According to research cited in your text, approximately ____ percent of marriages in India are arranged and among urban professionals, and approximately _____ percent rated their marriage as "very successful."
80; 95
Arnold is a highly educated, intelligent young man with a less than pleasing disposition. As such, he is most likely to be viewed as an excellent potential mate
in some cultures but not in other cultures.
Which couple is probably the happiest?
Harvey and Amy, who have just retired
Hansel (a male) and Gretel (a female) are best friends. If their cross-gender friendship is typical of most, Hansel's biggest misperception concerning Gretel would likely be
overperceiving Gretel's level of sexual interest in him.
Troy and Helen are both 55 and have been married for 20 years. However, they have grown apart and essentially live as housemates. Troy and Helen are best classified as
emotionally divorced.
When discussing his relationship with his wife Amber, Travis says, "I have this very strong sense of commitment and tranquility." Researchers have suggested that the neurophysiological basis of this feeling may be due to brain chemicals related to
morphine.
Eric and Jon have been friends for many years, but recently their friendship could be described as in the deterioration stage. Which factor is most likely to bring the relationship to the ending stage?
Eric and Jon find new friends.
Liz and Richard are 35-year-olds who have lived together for a long time. After the birth of their first child, they decided to get married. Given this description, Liz and Richard's cohabitation pattern suggests that they live in which country?
Sweden
Kalminjn and Flap (2001) found that ____ tended to promote strong homogamy in relationships.
meeting in school
Toni and Tim have just gotten married. Which component of love is most likely to be stronger 20 years from now than it is today?
Commitment
Part-time or limited cohabitation is usually undertaken because of
convenience or sexual accessibility.
Which statement best describes familism?
Family needs are more important than individual needs
To qualify as "emotionally divorced," a couple must
fail to rebound in happiness.
Which least exemplifies the early stage of most marriages?
Husbands being very concerned with their wives maintaining close ties with friends
The assortative mating theory proposes that initial mate selection is based primarily on
similarity.
Physical attractiveness is
important in love relationships for both males and females.
The initial stage in friendship development is called
acquaintanceship.
Like almost 99 percent of their age peers, 30-year-olds Alan and Barb are cohabitating before getting married. Given this statistic, Alan and Barb most likely live in
Sweden.
In 1970, _____ couples in the United States were cohabitating. In 2002, _____ couples in the United States were cohabitating.
.5 million; 5.5 million
Which statement concerning marital satisfaction and having children is true?
A decline in overall satisfaction is a common pattern for with-child and childless couples
How could Gene's relationship with Peggy reflect the communal component of adult friendship?
He could support her interest in skydiving by going along with her on a jump.
Within a love relationship, the feeling that one can share one's thoughts and actions with another is referred to as the component of _____.
intimacy
The belief that the family comes before individual members of a family is called _____.
familism
Alan and Darla are married and have decided not to have any children. They should expect to
be viewed negatively, especially by women.
Which statement concerning Latino families is true?
Familism is a defining characteristic of Latino families.
Juliet wants Romeo physically, and she wants him badly! Juliet is most likely experiencing
passion.
Currently, _____ countries provide gay and lesbian couples with the same legal rights as heterosexual couples.
few
In the United States, _____ rated a woman in an abusive relationship more positively if she left the man.
European-American women living in the North
Seven-month-old LeBron appears to possess a sense of "naive physics." Which of LeBron's actions would indicate that he does possess this sense?
His surprise when a basketball appears to be hanging in mid air when it is not attached to a string or other supporting device
Devin was born in 1950. As such, he is best classified as part of the _____ generation.
baby-boomer
Occupational aspiration is best thought of as the job
would like to get.
People tend to ____ college courses and majors that fit their personalities.
like
A worker described as _____ would feel devalued.
alienated
Troy is a 55-year-old worker who, despite having a very good work record, has been passed up for promotion many times in favor of younger workers with lesser records. Troy is most likely a victim of
age discrimination.
Getting a more extensive education is one benefit of
changing occupations.
Angela was a teacher who spent lots of time preparing lessons and grading papers, but she hadn't expecting teaching to take so much of her time and energy. Her education had not prepared her for what teaching would really be like. If she represents the average worker, her most likely reactions would involve
reality shock.
A Swedish study showed that most fathers who took parental leave when their child was born
were more likely to continue their involvement in childcare.
Julie is a female lawyer who has a mentor. Compared to her female colleagues who have no mentors, Julie is more likely to
make more money.
In the United States, just over ____ percent of two-parent households have two working parents.
60
Sexual harassment tends to occur when there is a(n) _____ difference between two people.
power
Which of the following activity indicates the most equitable division of labor between parents?
Vacuuming the carpet
Occupational burnout comes from excessive
feelings of exploitation.
Assistant Manager Tina just found out that she earns $10,000 per year less than Jeff, another assistant manager with the same exact educational background and experience. Tina is a victim of
pay inequity.
Longitudinal studies show that as one gets older, leisure activities tend to become less
physically challenging.
Which best exemplifies the concept of self-initiated occupational change?
Quitting a job to take on a more challenging job
Loss of a job is most likely to negatively impact men who are
middle-aged.
Which is not a benefit of leisure activities?
They enable us to forget about our past
Edsel is an autoworker on an assembly line. When asked to comment on his job, Edsel says, "First, I am a nothing to this company. Second, my 'do-nothing' job serves no purpose in the production of automobiles." Edsel is best described as
alienated.
Oscar is very worried about losing his job. Felicia feels comfortable that her job is completely secure. Based on research on job insecurity, it is likely that Oscar is
less physically well than Felicia.
Which developmental task would most likely characterize Dave, who is in his mid-teens?
Crystallization
As a typical African-American manager, Raquel would most likely report that compared to European-American managers, she experiences
less acceptance.
Kurt always had visions of a very extravagant, luxurious, happy life as a rock star. When he finally became a rock star, he found it to be lonelier and far less satisfying than he had imagined. Kurt is experiencing
reality shock.
Gail is a work supervisor who is very supportive of her workers' needs in regard to childcare and other family issues. Because of this, it is likely that Gail's workers will
report more job satisfaction.
Research on women working in the corporate world indicated that one reason professional women leave their job is that the common corporate structure does not value
an interdependent worker.
Super's theory of occupational development places individuals along a continuum of
vocational maturity.
Vocational maturity is best associated with
the amount of congruence between occupation behaviors and age.
Which of the following statements best describes the research on pay equity?
Women make less than men for the same job, even in traditionally male occupations.
Pursuing a leisure activity very seriously may become a problem only if
it is supported by others.
_____ African-American protégés have European-American mentors.
Most
What would break down a "glass ceiling?"
Faster promotion of women to upper-tier jobs
According to Lips-Wiersma (2003), which is not one of the four common meanings people derive from work?
Economic independence
Career plateauing would least likely be the result of
losing your job due to downsizing.
Who is most likely to experience burnout?
Tom, who is a psychologist
When assessing job satisfaction, middle-aged workers tend to be most satisfied with intrinsic aspects of their job like
heir perceived amount of job control.
Denying an individual a promotion due to that person's age is called _____.
age discrimination
Super's _____ occupational developmental task involves taking a series of temporary jobs to find out about work roles.
implementation
The greatest discrepancy in household task performance in heterosexual couples is found when males endorse _____ gender roles for themselves.
masculine
Amanda's baby is awake and squirming around, oblivious to anything happening around her. Amanda's baby is most likely in the ____ state.
waking activity
Fifty-year-old Esmeralda has been a heavy smoker since her youth. In addition, she lives in a sunny climate and always has a deep tan. You would expect that she has ____ than most other people her age.
more wrinkles
The metabolic slowdown common to individuals in their early 30s and mid-50s will lead to ____ in many males.
a middle-aged bulge
How are menopause and the climacteric related?
Menopause occurs during the climacteric.
The text notes that in _____, "menopausal syndrome" is thought to be the result of women with too much time on their hands.
Japan
Some males experience an age-related decline in ____ resulting in menopause-like symptoms.
testosterone
Who is likely to experience the most job-related stress?
Deena, who has no control over her job
Coping is defined as
any attempt to deal with stress.
Heather is experiencing a great deal of stress. She has tried relaxation training, thinking about life events in a different way, and even talking to her friends. All of these strategies are best classified as attempts at
coping.
Which is the best example of a measure of practical intelligence?
Knowing how to balance a checkbook
When confronted with a problem in his relationships with his wife, Frank scoffs it off, saying "Ahhh, that's not really an issue... it will work itself out." This is probably best classified as
avoidant thinking.
At which age is the debate of personality stability versus change most heated?
Middle age
Costa and McCrae's model of personality, which includes dimensions like conscientiousness, neuroticis0m, and openness to experience, is commonly referred to as the ____model.
five-factor
What are the five factors in the five-factor model?
Dimensions/traits
Kevin is described by friends as having a great imagination and being willing to try anything once. Given this description, Kevin would most likely score very high on a scale of
openness to experience.
Which person is most likely to experience difficulty getting along with others?
Marina, who is low on agreeableness
Which best describes the findings from most longitudinal studies of personality stability?
Personality traits are fairly stable across adulthood.
Which statement is true regarding the study of the Big Five conducted by Srivastava and colleagues (2003)?
It was a cross-sectional study
How many of the following would be ways to demonstrating generativity: parenting, mentoring, volunteering, shopping?
3
It is ____ for an adult child caregiver to feel resentful and angry at times about caring for an aging parent.
very common
Older adults who value _____ are most likely to express a desire to pay for caregiving rather than asking a family member for help.
independence and autonomy
Postconventional moral thinking is characterized by judgments made according to a(n)
personal code of behavior.
Which runner is engaging in aerobic exercise?
Sean, a 50-year-old whose heart rate is 130
An individual with high generativity would most likely have
a satisfactory marriage.
Declining levels of estrogen typically do not increase the risk of
weight loss.
McGuyver is trapped in a room with seemingly no way out. While contemplating his escape, he thinks about how part of the bed in the room could be used to make a helicopter. This practical thought is best classified as
a cognitive analysis.
Connie is a knowledgeable individual so when her physician tells her that she will be put on a biophosphonate, Connie realizes that she most likely has
osteoporosis.
Sylvester has a Type A behavior pattern and Stallone has a Type B behavior pattern. Which statement is true?
Sylvester has a better recovery prognosis following a heart attack.
Caring for aging parents can be beneficial in all of the following ways except
it can feel rewarding to the aging parent.
An individual who is very willing to work with others and who is viewed as very caring would score high on the five-factor dimension of _____.
agreeableness
For Beth, menopause just ended. Which change should she expect?
Reduced vaginal lubrication
What are the "pieces of bread" on either side of the "sandwich generation?"
Parents and children
The "biological process of thinking" would be best associated with
the mechanics of intelligence.
Which personality variable is most associated with cardiovascular disease?
Type A
Having a positive experience of an empty nest is most strongly influenced by
how well parents believe they did in their job as parents.
Dharma is upset with the lack of manners her husband Greg displays while eating, so she looks away or leaves the table each time her husband behaves this way. Dharma's response is best classified as
passive-dependent.
The loss of an available partner in older age
is a factor in the decrease in sexual intercourse for both men and women.
Which statement on "midlife crisis" is true?
Midlife crises are not universal.
Candida has had Alzheimer's disease for over a decade. In an effort to help slow her memory loss, therapists have begun asking her simple questions, waiting for 10 seconds, then, if Candida gets the item correct, re-asking the question after a slightly longer time delay. Candida's intervention is based on
spaced retrieval.
According to your text, the United States is ____ financially for the increasing numbers of elderly.
unprepared
If a neuron becomes extremely tangled,
information can no longer flow through the neuron.
The loss of bladder or bowel control is called
incontinence.
Environmental toxins appear to play _____ role in determining longevity.
a major
The cellular theory of aging most focuses on
deterioration of cells over a lifetime.
If the programmed cell theory of aging is correct,
humans are born with a "prewired death clock."
Which would most dramatically impact the levels of free radicals in one's body?
Consuming antioxidants like vitamin E
How many of the following are examples of internal memory aids: a calendar, your diary, class notes, mental notes?
1
Which is a characteristic of wisdom?
Deals with important life issues
____ are chemicals produced during normal cell metabolism that may cause cellular damage that impairs functioning.
Free radicals
Maura suspects that she has some memory deficit. What kind of assessment should she undergo?
Neuropsychological
As a typical 80-year-old, Joan's ____ would have decreased significantly since she was 20.
ability to take a big, deep breath
Fourth age is also characterized as
oldest-old.
Elijah asks his doctor how long he can plan to live without any major medical problems or impairments. Elijah is asking about _____ life expectancy.
useful
Which sleep complaint would you least expect from an older adult?
"Once I go to sleep, I sleep way too long."
The only universal behavior change in aging that has been discovered is the fact that older adults
have slower reaction times.
Carmen has a very difficult time breathing. Even after walking short distances, she is gasping for air. Carmen is exhibiting symptoms of
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
What is a more common term used to describe a cerebral vascular accident?
Stroke
What does not typically happen to the cardiovascular system as we age?
The heart begins to pump more blood per minute
As we grow old, our
lenses tend to yellow and the muscles controlling the eye stiffen.
Which does not belong?
Dysphoria
Which patient is likely to experience the fewest and least severe side effects from their antidepressant medication?
Victoria, who is taking an SSRI
Because he is a cognitive therapist, Dr. Spence is most likely to suggest that the underlying cause of depression involves
a thought process that focuses only on negative memories.
Genetic factors appear to play _____ role in determining whether people reach centenarian status.
a major
Blake's doctor has just prescribed relaxation therapy and benzodiazepines to help solve Blake's problem. What is his problem most likely to be?
An anxiety disorder
When Ruth's husband dies, she thinks, "I can't live without my husband. God is punishing me." These types of thoughts about events are called
internal belief systems.
When viewed through a microscope, a _____ would most resemble a spiral-shaped mass.
neurofibrillary tangle
Longevity appears to be determined
jointly by genetic and environmental factors.
If you wanted to visit the country with the lowest average life expectancy, you should book a trip to
Sierra Leone.
Which of the following statements is most accurate about the level of detail remembered about past events?
Older adults remember fewer details from past events than younger adults
In order to find a ballpark in a strange town, a player stops at a local gas station to get directions. The attendant tells the player, "Go to the stoplight, take a right, go two blocks, take a left, and the park will be a mile down the road on the left." The player then gets in her car and tries to remember the directions while driving to the park. The player is demonstrating the use of
working memory.
In preparing for a date in court, Angeline commits to memory the details of the case. This sort of conscious preparation and remembering of information is an example of ____ memory.
explicit
As he has presbyopia, Viggo has difficulty seeing
close objects.
Lo is a member of an ethnic minority group in the United States. Given this, how is her longevity most likely to be negatively impacted?
She likely has less access to quality medical care
While at a conference dealing with issues related to aging, Eve is interested in learning about how sleep patterns change in late life. She will be best served by attending a presentation entitled "____ and the Elderly."
Circadian Rhythms
Gina is recalling the time last year that she hiked up a big hill in the rain with a group of her friends. This memory would be best described as a(n) ____ memory.
episodic
Prior to entering a restaurant, Amy starts to shake, hyperventilate, and feel light-headed. She is too terrified to enter the restaurant. She turns around immediately and catches the first taxi back home. This behavior is most consistent with
an anxiety disorder.
Average life expectancy is also known as the ____ life expectancy.
median
____ is best explained by the wear-and-tear theory of aging.
Joint deterioration during osteoarthritis
Jeff is 73 years old. Lately, he's been thinking about the things he's done in his life—his relationships, his accomplishments, and other experiences he's had. Which term best describes what Jeff is doing?
Life review
Which of the following is not a goal motivating social contact according to socioemotional selectivity theory?
Fear
When Kayla looks back on her life, she is filled with a sense of pride and feels good about what she's done. Which term best describes these feelings?
Subjective well-being
While attempting to cope with the death of her sister, Megan decides to participate in a spontaneous celebration of life sponsored by a local church. For Megan, this participation is a nice example of the use of a ____ support.
Spiritual
The conflict of integrity versus despair is characterized by
attempting to make sense out of one's life.
The demands exerted on one's self by one's surroundings defines
an environmental press
Adaptation level is reached when
the environmental press is at the average state for a given level of competence.
Which of the following is not a possible contributing factor to elder abuse?
Caregiver's lack of control
Which adaptation level is associated with the greatest happiness and lack of worry about environmental demands?
Zone of maximum comfort
According to socioemotional selectivity theory, social contact is motivated by a goal, such as
information seeking.
Social contact motivated by information seeking tends to lead to
meeting more people.
Frail older adults
exhibit declining competence.
Bannister has run a mile in just under four minutes, which is his best time ever. This would represent his level of ____ for this skill.
competence
How many of the following are part of the definition of spiritual support: seeking pastoral care, expressing faith in a God, participating in organized religious activities?
3
Eric has maintained contact with six of his high school friends for the last 60 years. They often get together for activities, to socialize, and to simply spend time together. Eric and his longtime friends would be best described as a(n)
social convoy.
Herb is 73 years old. His family and friends all of a sudden feel uncomfortable around him. Because he feels very uncomfortable going to a restaurant by himself, he often stays at home alone. What has most likely happened to Herb?
His wife recently died
As a spouse caring for her Alzheimer's afflicted husband, Patsy, who has begun to experience a decrease in her marital satisfaction, is likely to be experiencing increased feelings of
depression.
Chris is a great-grandparent. It is most likely that Chris
married relatively early in life.
The major problem facing Medicare involves
rising healthcare costs.
Which statement concerning retirement is true?
Part-time employment following retirement can be the result of a desire to stay connected to one's former life/career
By definition, euthanasia is defined as the practice of ending life for reasons of
mercy.
In the country of Rigermortis, dead individuals are buried in bright yellow coats and the bereaved are sent pencils in the mail. In Rigermortis, a yellow coat and a pencil would serve as ____ of death.
objects
The fact that circulatory problems increase following the death of a spouse indicates that there is a(n) _____ component to grief.
physiological
The "Ethics Task Force" of the European Association of Palliative Care challenged the term "passive euthanasia" arguing that
"ending life is always active."
Mourning is best defined as the way a person
expresses grief.
For whom would a "Do Not Resuscitate" order be most appropriately applied?
Mike, whose heart stopped
Grief work is best defined as the
psychological coming of terms with bereavement.
The anniversary reaction is always tied to a
date.
Brent has been diagnosed with terminal cancer. Today, he spent hours praying: "Please, I'll do anything. Just give me one more chance. I'm so sorry. I'll be the best person, just please give me another chance." Brent is most likely in the ____ stage of dying.
bargaining
As a hospice staff member, you would be most unlikely to hear your supervisor say,
"Remember that fear is a natural part of the dying process, so you should try and encourage it in the clients."
The feelings that arise after someone near us dies are called
grief.
Bereavement during childhood
typically does not have long-lasting effects.
Tony's younger brother died when Tony was 11 years old. Tony is now 18 years old. If Tony is a normally developing adolescent, he is now much more likely to ____ than when he was 11.
talk about his brother
Which U.S. state passed the first law legalizing physician-assisted suicide?
Oregon
Determining how many people in a culture are killed in accidents, die from AIDS, and how long people in general can expect to live are examples of viewing death as a(n)
statistic.
A chart showing the number of teens who died from homicide during the past year represents death as a(n)
statistic.
When a death occurs, _____ traditionally cover the mirrors in the house.
Orthodox Jews
Chuck and Barb's infant has just died of SIDS. Which of these are they least likely to experience?
Acceptance of the loss
Afi is terminally ill. She is being sent to an institution that provides for people who are dying and their families. Afi is most likely being sent to a(n)
hospice.
Dr. Axle teaches bioethics. What lecture title would be most representative of his field?
"Mercy Killing: Legal or Illegal?"