PSYCHOLOGY 353: Chapter 10 - Work, Retirement, and Leisure Patterns
Terms in this set (54)
Work Patterns in Adulthood
Labor force includes all civilians in the over-16 population who live outside of institutions.
Work will dominate your life from your 20s, until you retire to enjoy the activities you didn't have time for when you were working.
The type of job you have, the amount of money you make, and the conditions in which you work carry over to virtually every other area of your life.
If you're like most people, you will come to define your identity in terms of your job title, prestige, security, and status.
In 2011, Canada had the second highest...
employment rate for people aged 15 to 64.
Had the lowest employment rate.
Workforce participation rates...
for men aged 65 to 69 have almost doubled, and women of the same age they have almost tripled.
Six Largest Racialized Groups in Canada..
(in order of size)
1. South Asian
3. Black or African Canadian
4. Arab and West Asian
6. Latin American
Are 3x higher among racialized families than among their non-racialized counterparts in Canada.
Women vs. Men in Employment
Women are less likely than men to be employed in high-paying sectors of the market.
Women under 55 without children were most likely to be employed.
Rates of Employment Among Women With Children has...
Employment rates are HIGHER for mothers in two-parent families.
Have higher unemployment rates.
- Among Canadian veterans, unemployment is 8%.
People express their personality in their vocational aspirations and interests.
- CONGRUENCE is goal.
- But recall that personality traits can change with time.
Holland's RIASEC Model
Coventional: Accountant, Cashier, Clerk, Financial Analyst.
Realistic: Engineer, Farmer, Technician, Cook.
Investigative: Chemist, Economist, Physician, Market Resarcher.
Artistic: Dancer, Editor, Singer, Artist.
Social: Teacher, Coach, Massage Therapist.
Enterprising: Chief Executive, Manager, Salesperson, Lawyer.
Total of 6.
Super's Life Span Life Stage Theory
Super's Life Span Life Stage Theory focuses on the role of the self and proposes that people's attempt to realize their inner potential through their career choices.
Constraints of the marketplace means that people are not always able to achieve full realization of the self-concept.
Through RECYCLING and CAREER plateauing, people may not follow these stages in order.
Occupation as Calling
- A consuming passion for a particular career.
- Fulfills identity.
- Must be living the calling, not just wishing for it.
- Chooie that's made after period of intense reflecting and self-scrutiny.
Individuals feel self-directed and driven internally by their valus.
Career that crosses boundaries of employer or organization.
These individuals seek opportunities for development in jobs, and when they do not find them, they may feel less psychologically invested in organization that employs them.
- It is important for women and those in tech fields particularly.
- Specific to the job itself.
- Engage sense of identity.
- Work pertains to feelings of competence, autonomy, and stimulation of personal growth.
- Work that is calling (though not necessary).
- Accompany the job but aren't central to its performance.
- Salary, conditions of work, employment policies, racial climate.
- Don't engage sense of identity.
Intrinsic: Job motivators (self-actualization).
Extrinsic: Hygiene Factors.
Amount of control "motivation crowding out".
Affective Events Theory
Events at work produce affective reactions which influence attitudes toward work and performance.
In addition, job satisfaction is predicted by:
- Participation in Organization
- Supervisory Support
- Concern by supervisors for employee welfare.
Personality traits also play a role (agreeableness, neuroticism).
People high in subjective well-being tend to be more satisfied.
Person-Environment Correspondence Theory
Predicts greatest satisfactin when workplace values matches worker's needs.
6 Occupational Reinforcement Patterns:
Cause of Work Stress
Emotional Labor: requirement in service industry to smile an be friendly no matter what.
Workplace bullying: ranges from social isolation, direct harrassment, intimidating, behavior, work-related criticism, and physical violence.
Justice at Work: WhiteHall ll showed links between lack of fair treatment and metabolic syndrome.
Whitehall II Study
Men who reported higher justice at work (such as perceived job fairness) had a far lower risk of metabolic syndrome than men who experience lower work justice.
For women, stress encountered at work predicted Type 2 Diabetes, even after controlling for socio-economic positions and stressors unrelated to work.
Men in lower employment grades showed higher cortisol levels early in morning, levels that remained higher throughout the day than in men in higher employment grades. These higher levels could be explained not only by higher levels of stress during the day but also by poorer quality of sleep at night.
Work-Family Enrichment Model
Predicts that experiences in one role improved quality of life in the other through support in 5 areas of role experiences.
Skills and Perspectives: interpersonal skills, coping skills, respect for individual differences.
Psychological and Physical Resources: self-efficacy, hardiness, optimism.
Social Capital Resources: networking, information.
Flexibility: flexible work arrangements.
Material Resources: money, gifts.
For example: Parents may gain networking experience with other parents that helps them on the job. Researchers also use the term POSITIVE SPILLOVER to describe this transfer of skills from one domain to another.
Role experiences can also prove enriching through effect on mood. If you have a good day at work, you bring your good mood home with you.
In additional, according to social exchange theory, employees who feel that their work supports their ability to carry their family roles feel more obligated to RECIPROCATE WITH FAVORABLE ATTITUDES TOWARDS THEIR JOB and their company.
The transfer of skills from one domain to the other.
Theory of Conservation of Resources
Proposes that organizations can protect their workers against stress by providing them with support to maintain both their work and family roles.
Work-Family Conflict Model
Proposes that people have fixed amount of time and energy to spend on life roles (scarcity perspective).
Conflict is most likely to occur among mothers of young-children, dual career doubles, and those highly involved in their job.
Private sector more likely than public sector (more supervisory, organizational support).
- Greater conflict for younger worker.
- Personality (affectivity) plays a role.
- When managers provide such measures as accommodation work schedules, employees actually become more productive and are less likely to leave the organization. Also the role of social support from colleges.
Age and Vocational Satisfaction
- Age related only weakly to measures of satisfaction.
- Stronger relationships for older workers and with more tenure, minorities, and workers without college education.
- There are no differences between Baby Boomers and Gen X.
There are Other Factors to Consider: core self-evaluation, age discrimination, level of occupation, belief in work ethic, support from employers, changes in physical and cognitive functioning.
*** Question of whether job satisfaction increases, decreases, or stays the same over adulthood is surprisingly difficult. More and more working adults recycle through jobs.
Age and Vocational Performance
Effect of age on work performance varies with the NATURE OF TASK.
For example: Jobs requiring crystallized intelligence (no decrease until well past retirement) and depending on experience theoretically should show improved performance in later adulthood.
Shift work: Difficult for older workers.
Injury: Workers over 55 are nearly half as likely to suffer a non-fatal injury as those 35 years and younger, and about half as likely to die from a work-related injury.
When injured, may be more severe and may take longer to get better (back injuries or repetitive motion injuries more common).
Characteristics of the Older Worker
Older workers show fewer counter-productive work behaviors, such as voluntary absenteeism.
More likely to engage in good "citizenship", meaning they participate in more voluntary activities.
Also take fewer risks on the job, so tend to be safer.
Age Discrimination in Employment Ac
Illegal to fire or not employ workers on basis of age.
There are no protection for workers in which age affects job performance (police, officer, firefighters, airline pilots).
However, ageism still exists which can create self-fulfilling prophecy. Supervisors can counter by building self-efficacy of older workers.
Note: An employer may discriminate on the basis of age if reason is bona fide occupational requirement (BFOR) Alberta Human Rights Commission - 2012.
The withdrawal of an individual from the labor force in later life. However, for most workers, retirement occurs in a series of phases through which they progress at least ones, if not several times, throughout their lives.
Economy's health affects not only the financial security of the employed, but also the financial security of the retired.
Criteria for retirement are met when an individual in later life with a cohesive past work pattern has not worked for a sustained period of time and is no longer psychologically invested in work.
Phases of Retirement
Retirement is best thought of a process in which individuals adapts over time.
Crisp Retirement Pattern
Leave labor force in single clear-cut exit (minority of workers).
Blurred Retirement Pattern
Exit and reenter labor force several times.
Work in different occupation than during adult life.
Strongly related to financial need.
Facts About Retirement
Most important reason for retiring is that it is FINANCIALLY POSSIBLE.
Note: Retirement may be arriving later, but Statistics Canada data suggests it is still lasting just as long, because of a corresponding increase in life expectancy.
Old Age Security (OAS)
Everyone in Canada who meets the basic requirements is eligible for OAS.
The age of eligibility for OAS pension and the Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) will GRADUALLY INCREASE from 65 to 67 over six years, starting April 2023.
Eligibility age for Allowance and the Allowance for the survivors will also gradually increase from 60 to 62.
CPP and QPP...
cover ONLY those in the paid workforce.
Roles provide source of fulfillment, loss of work role is harmful.
Retirees maintain previous sense of identity after retirement; retirement is not a crisis.
Life Course Perspective
Normative timing of events; retirement stressful only when unexpected.
Adjustment to retirement reflects physical, cognitive, motivational, financial, social, and emotional resources (draws from a range of strength and opportunities in a variety of life domains).
The more resources, the more favorable will be the individual's adjustment.
Factors that shape the individual's prior vocational development will have a persisting influence throughout retirement.
The Majority Adjust Well to...
retirement, if not immediately after they transition out of their work role, then within a period of few years.
Spend majority of employed years in a series of related occupations.
Leisure Pursuits in Later Adulthood
In 2010, almost half of Canadians volunteered their time, amounting to almost 2.1 billion hours - the equivalent of 1.1 million full-time jobs.
Those who volunteered the most hours were 65 years of age or older, widowed, not in labor force, without children at home, and more likely to attend religious services or meetings.
Importance of Leisure Pursuits for Older Adults
Contribute to sense of identity.
Provide focus and meaning in life.
Help maintain health and cognitive functioning.
Social connections to others.
The most % of Participation in Leisure Activity is...
Watching television, second comes reading.
Older adults who become involved with new leisure activity can experience enhanced sense of meaning in life and feeling of self-reinvention.
seek personal growth and self-expression through travel.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
Holland RIASEC model can be applied to leisure activities in older adults.
Emerging trend is the use of Internet by older adults in Canada.
Know "Innovation Theory"
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