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Fundamentals Test 1
Terms in this set (51)
Chemical Drug Name
provides the exact description of medication's composition
Generic Drug Name
the manufacturer who first develops the drug assigns the name, and it is then listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia
also known as brand or proprietary name. This is the name under which a manufacturer markets the medication.
Solid, liquid, other oral forms; topical, parenteral; forms for instillation into body cavities
Pharmacokinetics is the study of how medications?
- Enter the body
- Are absorbed and
- distributed into cells, tissues, or organs
- Reach their site of action
- Alter physiological functions
- Are metabolized
Exit the body
What is drug absorption?
Passage of medication molecules into the blood from the site of administration
Factors that influence absorption:
- Route of administration
- Ability to dissolve
- Blood flow to site of administration
- Body surface area
- Lipid solubility of medication
Which type of medication has the slowest rate of absorption?
Which type of medications have a quick absorption rate?
Topical and mucous membrane
Which type of medication has the fastest absorption rate?
Why do oral medications take time to absorb?
They pass through the GI tract
When do mediations get absorbed quickly?
When there is a rich blood supply
What happens after absorption?
distribution occurs within the body to tissues, organs, and specific sites of action.
What does distribution depend on?
- Physical and chemical properties of the medication
- Physiology of the person taking it
Distribution depends on the physiology and
- Membrane permeability
- Protein binding
What does the speed of distribution depend on?
The speed of distribution depends on the vascularity of various tissues and organs.
What does a medication have to do to be distributed to an organ?
pass through the organ's tissues and biological membranes.
The blood-brain barriers allow which type of medication to pass through
Fat soluble medications
What happens when medication binds to albumin?
It is no longer pharmacologically active. This unbound or "free" medication is its active form
What are medications metabolized into?
A less potent or an inactive form
Biotransformation occurs under the influence of enzymes that
- break down
- remove active chemicals
Where does biotransformation occur?
Mostly in the liver
- Kidneys, blood, intestines, and lungs play a role
What will happen to medications if the organs used for biotransformation are not functioning correctly?
If a decrease in liver function occurs such as with aging or liver disease, a medication usually is eliminated more slowly, resulting in its accumulation. Patients are at risk for medication toxicity if organs that metabolize medications are not functioning correctly
How are medications excreted?
What determines the organ of excretion?
Chemical makeup of medication
What is the main organ for excretion?
Which type of medications are excreted through the lungs?
Anesthetic gases, alcohol
Why should certain medications not be taken during pregnancy?
Some may pass through the placental barrier or mammary glands.
The exocrine glands excrete
When medications exit through sweat glands
the skin often becomes irritated, requiring you to instruct patients in good hygiene practices.
Medications that enter the hepatic circulation are broken down by the liver and excreted
into the bile.
After chemicals enter the intestines through the biliary tract, the intestines resorb them. Factors that increase peristalsis (e.g., laxatives, enemas) accelerate medication excretion through the feces, whereas factors that slow peristalsis (e.g., inactivity, im
Some medications escape extensive metabolism and exit unchanged in
If renal function declines, a patient is at risk for
medication toxicity. When the kidney cannot adequately excrete a medication, it is necessary to reduce the dose. Maintenance of adequate fluid intake (8 to 9 cups, or about 2 L of water/day) promotes proper elimination of medications for the average adult.
Expected or predicted physiological response
Unavoidable secondary effect
Unintended, undesirable, often unpredictable
Accumulation of medication in the bloodstream
Over-reaction or under-reaction or different reaction from normal
Unpredictable response to a medication
Occur when one medication modifies the action of another
A synergistic effect
occurs when the combined effect of two medications is greater than the effect of the medications given separately.
Alcohol has a synergistic effect on
antihistamines, antidepressants, barbiturates, and narcotics because alcohol is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant.
A patient with hypertension may need to take a combination of medications, such as
a diuretic and a vasodilator, to control high blood pressure through the synergistic effect of the two medications.
safe therapeutic range, which falls between
the MEC and the toxic concentration.
Time at which a medication reaches its highest effective concentration
Time medication takes to produce greatest result
Time for serum medication concentration to be halved
Point at which blood serum concentration is reached and maintained
Minimum blood serum concentration before next scheduled dose
Time it takes for a medication to produce a response
The 6 Rights
1. Right medication
2. Right dose
3. Right patient
4. Right route
5. Right time
6. Right documentation
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