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Growth Hormone

Causes protein synthesis & cell growth

Growth Hormone Problems

Too much: gigantism & agromegaly
Too little: growth retardation or dwarfism


Stimulates and maintains milk production
Causes decrease in LH (natural birth control)

Prolactin Problems

Too much: amenorrhea (no mentrual cycle); infertility; breast enlargement
Too little: infertility & lack of milk production (for women); no known effects for men

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates release of cortisol from adrenal gland
Regulates hormone production from adrenal

ACTH Problems

Too much: Cushing's syndrome (weight gain, depression, "moon face," "buffalo hump"
Too little: Addison's disease (severe fatigue; weight loss; lack of recovery from shock)

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Tells thyroid to make and release thyroid hormone

TSH Problems

Too much: hyperthyroidism; goiter
Too little: hypothyroidism

Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Stimulates development of follicles in ovaries (eggs)
Stimulates sperm production in seminiferous tubules

FSH Problems

Too much: usually no problems
Too little: insufficient production of eggs and sperm

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Triggers ovulation in females and stimulates corpus luteum to produce progesterone
Stimulates testosteron production by interstitial cells of the testes

LH Problems

Too much: usually no problems
Too little: no ovulation or amenorrhea; low sperm production

Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Causes color changes in skin (tells melanocytes to make more pigment)

MSH Problems

Too much: more pigmentation
Too little:


Stimulates uterus to produce contractions during childbirth
Causes release of milk for nursing moms

Oxytocin Problems

Too much:
Too little: problems in childbirth; reduced milk production

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Inhibits urine production
Causes kidney to reabsorb water (keep more water in the body)

ADH Problems

Too much: retain too much water (SIADH)
Too little: diabetes insipidus (excessive production of dilute urine, excessive thirst, dehydration)

Thyroid Hormone (thyroxine)

Regulates metabolism--controls the rate at which glucose is burned

Thyroid Hormone Problems

Goiters--can be due to over or under activity; common cause is lack of iodine

Thyroid Hormone Problems (too much)

Too much: hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease); increased metabolism, hot, increased appetite, weight loss, increased sweating

Thyroid Hormone Problems (too little)

Too little: hypothyroidism (cretinism--in kids; myxedema--in adults); dry skin, lethargy, weakness, cold, low metabolism


Lower blood calcium
Less calcium absorbed in intestines; bones take up more; kidneys get rid of more

Calcitonin Problems

Too much: can be given to people with osteoporosis to help maintain bone density
Too little: not much is known

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

More absorbed in intestines; bones "give up" more; kidneys "hold on to" more
Increases blood calcium levels

PTH Problems

Too much: osteoporosis; rickets (bowed legs) in children
Too little: very uncommon; can cause muscle disorders

Aldosterone (mineralocorticoids)

Regulates mineral (salt) levels in blood; controls the salt-water balance; tells kidneys to keep more sodium; causes changes in blood volume and pressure

Aldosterone Problems

Too much: increased blood pressure and edema
Too little: electrolyte and water imbalance

Cortisol (glucocorticoids)

Controls rate of metabolism of carbohydrates; raises blood sugar levels; protects against "long-term" stressors

Cortisol Problems

Too much: Cushing's syndrome (weight gain, depression, "moon face," "buffalo hump"
Too little: Addison's disease (severe fatigue; weight loss; lack of recovery from shock)

Sex Hormones (from adrenal cortex)

Mostly androgens and some estrogens
Hypersecretion: usually masked in men; masculinization in women (bearded ladies)

Epinephrine & Norepinephrine

Raises blood sugar; increases heart rate; increases force of heart contraction; controls blood flow (constricts and dilates blood vessels); "fight-or-flight"; short-term stress response

Epinephrine & Norepinerphine Problems

Too much: rapid heart rate; high blood pressure, sweating, irritability
Too little: Usually not a problem (as long as sympathetic nervous system is OK)


Helps glucose get into cells
Lowers blood glucose levels

Insulin Problems

Too much: very low blood sugar levels
Too little: Diabetes mellitus--excessive thirst, excessive urination, excessive hunger, gluose and ketones in urine


Tells liver to break down glycogen into glucose
Raises blood glucose levels

Glucagon Problems

Too much: no important disorders
Too little: no important disorders


Sleep "trigger"
Helps establish day-night cycles
Responsible for seasonal activiites in other animals


Helps T cells mature


Development of secondary sex characteristics; controls & stimulates reproductive system development & activiites; prepares uterus for fertilized egg; helps maintain pregnancy & prepare breasts to produce milk

Estrogen Problems

Too much:
Too little: infertility; menopause (in women)


Helps maintain pregnancy and prepare breasts to produce milk


Controls and stimulates reproductive system development & activities; development of secondary sex characteristics; needed for continuous production of sperm

Testosterone Problems

Too much: Males--breast development & loss of testes function; Females--deep voice & faicial hair; Both--stunted growth, acne, aggressive behavior
Too little: infertility

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

Stimulates corpus luteum to continue to produce estrogen and progesterone

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