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AP Biology Review - Ecology part 4

This is a study guide under the subject of Ecology [Biochemical Cycles, Biomes, and Human Impact] for the AP Biology Test. Good luck! Pt. 4 ----- Pt. 3 is located here: http://quizlet.com/864839/ap-biology-review-ecology-part-3-flash-cards/ Incomplete

Terms in this set (...)

Biochemical cycles
Cycle that desribes the flow of essential elements from the environment to living things and back to the environment.
Hydrologic Cycle (water cycle): Reservoir
Of the Hydrologic Cycle, [oceans, air, groundwater, glaciers] includes evaporation and precipitation of water from oceans going to land
Hydrologic Cycle (water cycle): Assimilation
Of the Hydrologic Cycle, Plants absorb water from the soil, animals drink water or eat other organisms (which are mostly water
Hydrologic Cycle (water cycle): Release
Of the Hydrologic Cycle, plants transpire, animals and plants decompose.
Carbon Cycle (required for building organic compounds):Reservoirs
Of the Carbon Cycle, the atmosphere (CO2), fossil fuels (coal), durable organic material.
Carbon Cycle (required for building organic compounds):Assimilation
Of the Carbon Cycle, Plants use CO2 in photosynthesisl animals consume plants or other animals
Carbon Cycle (required for building organic compounds):Release
Of the Carbon Cycle, Plants and animals release CO2 through respiration and decomposition CO2 is released when organic material [wood/coal] is burned
Nitrogen cycle (required for making amino + nucleic acids): Reservoirs
Of the Nitrogen Cycle, Atmosphere (N2) soil (NH4+ ammonium)
Nitrogen cycle (required for making amino + nucleic acids): Assimilation
Of the Nitrogen Cycle, Plants absorb nitrogen either as NO3- or as NH3+, animals obtain nitrogen by eating plants or other animals
Nitrogen Fixation
N2 to NH3+ by nitrogen fixing prokaryotes in soil and root nodules
NH4+ to NO2- by various nitrifying bacteria.
Nitrogen cycle (required for making amino + nucleic acids): Release
Of the Nitrogen Cycle, Denitrifying bacteria convert NO3- back to N2 (denitrification); detrivorous bacteria convert organic compounds back to NH4+ (ammonification); animals excrete NH4+, urea, or uric acid
Phosphorus cycle (required for making ATP and nucleic acids): Reservoirs
Of the Phosphorous Cycle, Rocks and ocean sediments (erosion transfers phosphorus to water and soil)
Phosphorus cycle (required for making ATP and nucleic acids): Assimilation
Of the Phosphorous Cycle, Plants absorb inorganic phosphate from soils, animals obtain organic phosphorus when they eat plants/other animals
Phosphorus cycle (required for making ATP and nucleic acids): Release
Of the Phosphorous Cycle, Plants and animals release phosphorus when they decompose; animals excrete phosphorus in their waste products.
Divided regions of the biosphere that exhibits common environmental characteristics; is occupied by unique communities or ecosystems of plants and animals.
Tropical rain forest
Biome characterized by high temp. and heavy rainfall. Consists of mostly tall trees that branch at the top and form canopies that shadow the forest floor.
Plants that live commensally on other plants, mostly grow on the forest flow due to lack of light.
Biome characterized by grasslands with scattered trees. Subject to high temp. but receive much less water.
Temperate grasslands
Biome that receives less water and is subject to lower temp. than savannas.
Temperate deciduous forest
Biome that occupies regions that have warm summers, cold winters, and moderate preciptitation. Shed leaves during the winter.
Biome that is hot and dry, growth of annual plants is limited to short periods following rains. most animals have thick skins to conserve water.
Biome that is characterized by coniferous (pines, firs, and other trees with needles for leaves).Winters are cold and snowy
Biome that's subject to winters so cold that the ground freezes. In the summer, the upper soil thaws ans supports growth of grasses, sedges, and other soggy-soil plants
Deeper soil of tundras that remain permanently frozen
Fresh Water biomes
Includes ponds, lakes, streams, and rivers
Marine Biomes
Includes estuaries, intertidal zones (where oceans meet land), continental shelves (shallow oceans that border continents), coral reefs, and the deep (pelagic) oceans.
Global Climate Change
The burning of fossil fuels and forests increases CO2 in the atmosphere. As a result, global temp are rising. Warmer temp could raise sea levels and decrease agriculture output.
Ozone depletion
The ozone layer forms in the upper atmosphere when UV radiation reacts with oxygen to form ozone. The ozone absorbs UV radiation. When broken down, causes ozone holes.
Ozone holes
Areas of major ozone thinning; appears regularly over Antarctica, the Arctic, and northern Eurasia
Acid Rain
Caused by the burning of fossil fuels and other air pollutants containing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. React with water vapor, making acid, and return to surface of earth with rain/snow. Kills plants and animals on land, lakes, and rivers.
Occurs when overgrazing of grasslands that border deserts transform the grasslands into deserts.
Clear-cutting of forests that cause erosion, flooding, and changes in weather patterns.
Air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution contaminate the materials essential to life.
Biological Magnification
Process where one organism eats another, and a toxin becomes more and more concentrated
Algal Blooms
Massive growths of algae and other phytoplankton that are stimulated by abundant nutrients, especially phosphates.
Process of nutrient enrichment in lakes and the subsequent increase in biomass
Reduction in species diversity
as a result of human activities, especially the destruction of tropical rain forests and other habitats, plants and animals are apparently becoming extinct at a faster rate than the planet has ever previously experienced. I they were to survive, many of the disappearing plants could become useful to humans as medicines, foods, or industrial products.