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Micro Lecture 5: pathogenesis
Terms in this set (19)
what determines the outcome of an infection?
interaction between host and virus. involves the virus strain, route of infection, dose, cytotoxicity, host health, host genetics, co-infections, etc.
what are some routes of infection for viruses?
GI, respiratory, animal bite (zoonotic), arthropods, sexual, bloodborne, vertically (congenital)
what are some examples of viruses can be shed by the skin?
what viruses are shed by the blood?
Hep B, Polio, HIV
what is a latent state regarding viruses?
cellular: no infectious particles produced.
Organismal: periods between infection and disease
What is a persistent infection?
cellular: lytic state, equillibrium. between cell death and production
organismal:continuous inhabitation of host
describe some patterns of infection and give examples
1. acute infection: comes and goes quicklye.g GI viruses
2. Latent: initial infection and multiple reactivations
3. progressive: initial infection, goes away, comes back chronically e.g HIV or Hep C
4. chronic infection: similar to progressive, but stays constant in severity
5. failure to clear all of infection: leaves a small amnt of infection. E.g polio dormant in CNS
how do viruses cause illness?
cytopathic effect: destruction of cells e.g neurons
toxic molecules (e.g rotavirus NSP4)
describe different types of viral genes
1. basic replication functions: e.g polymerase
2. cell and tissue tropism: e.g HIV gp120
3. immunoevasion: downregulate antigen presentation
4. toxic products: rotavirus NSP4
Does load effect the probablility of symptomatic disease?
Give some examples of Viruses that cause cancer
HPV: cervical cancer
HTLV: T cell leukemia
Herpes virus 8: Kaposi's sarcoma
Epstein Barr: Burkitt's lymphoma
Hepatitis B/C: liver cancer
what are some intracellular defenses cells have?
interferon, RNAase L, stress response. cell death: apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy
what immunopathology is caused by Viruses?
systemic interferon responses,
describe the activities of antibodies
1. on virions: neutralization or complement mediated lysis
2. viral particles on cell surfaces:
Fc mediated: infected cell lysis,
cell signalling: inhibition of viral replication,
Steric hinderance:inhibition of virus release,
Steric hinderance: inhibition of cell-cell transmission
what are some targets of immune evasion?
1. innate and intrinsic defenses: apoptosis, interferons, PKR pathway
2. Adaptive responses: antigen presentation
1. activated by dsRNA
2. PKR is phosphorylated
3. inhibitis eLF2 function (prevents translation)
what are some ways of detecting a viral infection?
detect response to agent: serology
describe cytoloy or HSV, Papillomavirus, CMV
HSV: cervical smear with nuclear inclusions
papillomavirus: binuc. cells w/ perinuclear halos in Ep. Cells
CMV: cytoplasmic inclusions in bronchoalveolar cells
how effective is antiviral therapy compared to antibacterial?
antiviral not very effective
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