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Main types of vegatation

forest grasslands deserts and tundra

Climate Zones?

tropical dry temperate continental and polar


flat, raised areas of land


flat areas of upland


an extensive area of level and rolling, treeless country, often covered by rich, fertile soil.


deposits of sand and soil at the mouth of a river form


low areas that catch the water from rivers


areas of soft, wet land; many plants and animals live here


wet lowland with trees and dry periods


first known writings by the Sumerians

Indus Valley

Harrappan civilization started in 3rd or 4th century included a civic system and trade routes no gov't


short empires that failed because of oppression of the people


united by the Nile river gov't extending past the nile stable and long lived because they blended different people


city-states united under Alexander the Great blended their values with those of the other cultures


italian city state grew into an empire lasted for 1000 years and was the foundation of the western worlds culture language and laws


since 221 BC functioned as an empire structure has been the same since the 20th century


in the 20th and 19th century became more unified under the british control. caste system

Middle Ages

500-1500 AD

Roman Catholicism

cultural and religious center of the medieval life from politics to economics


a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims

Charles the Great

created an empire, Frankish King aka Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor (r. 768-814 AD) most powerful Carolingian, phenomenal energy, and great military achievement

The black death plague

bubonic plague, killed btwn 1/3 to 1/2 of europe btwn 1347-1350

protestant reformation

attempt to reform the catholic church led to the seperation of it in 1517 and the rise of new religiona


rebirth of France with a renewed interest in Greek, Latin art, literature and philosophy from 14-16 th century


italian scholar, writer, key figure n the northern italy

Leonardo Da Vinci

Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect



Desiderius Erasmus

historical scholar to the New Testament

Sir Thomas More

lawyer who wrote Utopia


author of princes and discourses. proposed a science of human nature and civil life


playwright and poet

Industrial Revolution

begin with the first cotton mill in 1733, steam engine, factories. child labor laws being

French Explorations

men from france succeeded in going out to other placing and being the founders of different lands

Ponce De Leon

establishes the oldest european settlement in PR and found St Augustine lookn for the fountain of youth

Alonso Alvarez de Pineda

charted the gulf coast from FL to Mexico in 1519

Themes of Geography

location, place, human-environmental interaction, movement, regions

types of coral reef

fringing, atolls and barrier reef


the study of landforms

types of map projections

conical, cylindrical, and azimuthal

7 continents

North and South America, Africa, Australia, Europe, Asia, Antartica,

traits of an empire

a strong military, centralized govt, control and standardization of commerce, money, taxes; a weight system and an official language

13 colonies

Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia Massachutes, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsyvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia

reasons for the rebellion==> American Rev

ppl considered themselves American not english, 7 yr war they were treated as inferiors in the British Army, didnt want ANglincans to take religious control, Taxation, no representation for colonies,

Seven Year War

French and Indian War from 1754-1763

groups/events that contributed the revolution

Sons of liberty, Boston Massacre, Committess of Correspondance, the boston tea party, first contenental congress

Turing Point of the revolution

common sense, DOI, Alliance with France, Treaty of Paris, 2nd continental congress

Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson 7-4-1776

Alliance with France

Benjamin Franklin's negotiation with france to fight with the americans in 1778

Treaty of Paris

officially ended the war and granted independence to the colonies and gave the territorial rights

what happened at the 1787 convention?

a new constitution was written that included the 3 branches of government


those who opposed the new constitution and wanted a bill or rights

Federalist Paper

written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton it xplained the federalist platform

Lousiana Purchase

Thomas Jeffersons "greatest accomplishment" even though it was a very federalist action and he was an antifederalist. 1803 for 15million

The compromise of 1812

allowed those who lived in Mexican Session to decide whether to be free or slave territories

War of 1812

War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere or war would happen

Manifest Destiny

belief that it was an American right to expand west

Andrew jackson

beginning of modern democracy, indian removal act 1830, nullification

indian removal act

removed indians from southern states and put them on reservations in the Oklahoma

Whig Party

1833-1856 concerned with defending the supremacy of the congress

Confederate States

North and South carolina, Virginia, Florida, Mississippi. Alabama, Lousisana, Texas, Tennessee. President JD

Union States

Delware, maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. President Ulysses S. Grant unitl 1864


the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union

Gilded Age

Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization

Progressive Era

Period of reform from 1890s-1920s. Opposed waste and corruption while focusing on the general rights of the individual. Pushed for social justice, general equality, and public safety. Significants in this movement included trust-busting, Sherman Anti-trust Act, President Theodore Roosevelt, Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act of 1906.`

Spanish American War

War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

World War 1

War fought from 1914 to 1918 between the Central and Allied Powers. The United States joined the Allied Powers in 1917, helping them to victory.

Allied Powers BFGIRRS

britain, france, greece, italy,russia, romania, and serbia

Central Powers

germany, austria-hungary, bulgaria, and Turkey

World War II

War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory.

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology. protection against oppression

Marshall Plan

A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.

organization of American States

international organization that promotes peace and economic progress in the Americas

Berlin Blockade

blockaded east germany from american supplies. americans bypassed by air-lifting goods to the germans

Korean War

The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.

Cuban Missile Crisis

the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba

Vietnam War

a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States

6 basic principles of the constitution

popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balance, judicial review, federalism

Bill of rights

a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)

gettysburg address

a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg

14 points

(1918) President Woodrow Wilson's plan for organizing post World War I Europe and for avoiding future wars.

address to congress

Woodrow Wilson, persuading Congress to enter WWI, help German people from German govt.

inaugural address

John F, Kennedy, The Government is not Responsible for Everything

berlin address

JFK June 26, 1963 expressed empathy for Berlin in their conflict with the Soviet Union

Brandenburg address

Ronald Reagan June 12, 1987 about the Berlin wall and the end of the cold war "tear this wall down"

4 types of federal tax

income on individual, and corporation, excise tax, custom duties

employment act of 1946

Enacted by Truman, it committed the federal government to ensuring economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to confer with the president and formulate policies for maintaining employment, production, and purchasing power

2 kinds of economies

market and command

characteristics of a market economy

FLIPC- economic Freedom, Limited govt, economic Incentives, Competition, Private ownership

Factors of production

Land, Labor, Capital, and entrepreneurship

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