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91 terms

GACE Special Ed Academic Content Area

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Main types of vegatation
forest grasslands deserts and tundra
Climate Zones?
tropical dry temperate continental and polar
plateaus
flat, raised areas of land
mesas
flat areas of upland
plains
an extensive area of level and rolling, treeless country, often covered by rich, fertile soil.
deltas
deposits of sand and soil at the mouth of a river form
basins
low areas that catch the water from rivers
marshes
areas of soft, wet land; many plants and animals live here
swamps
wet lowland with trees and dry periods
Sumer
first known writings by the Sumerians
Indus Valley
Harrappan civilization started in 3rd or 4th century included a civic system and trade routes no gov't
Mesopotamia
short empires that failed because of oppression of the people
Egypt
united by the Nile river gov't extending past the nile stable and long lived because they blended different people
Greece
city-states united under Alexander the Great blended their values with those of the other cultures
Rome
italian city state grew into an empire lasted for 1000 years and was the foundation of the western worlds culture language and laws
China
since 221 BC functioned as an empire structure has been the same since the 20th century
India
in the 20th and 19th century became more unified under the british control. caste system
Middle Ages
500-1500 AD
Roman Catholicism
cultural and religious center of the medieval life from politics to economics
Crusades
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
Charles the Great
created an empire, Frankish King aka Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor (r. 768-814 AD) most powerful Carolingian, phenomenal energy, and great military achievement
The black death plague
bubonic plague, killed btwn 1/3 to 1/2 of europe btwn 1347-1350
protestant reformation
attempt to reform the catholic church led to the seperation of it in 1517 and the rise of new religiona
Renaissance
rebirth of France with a renewed interest in Greek, Latin art, literature and philosophy from 14-16 th century
Petrarch
italian scholar, writer, key figure n the northern italy
Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
raphael
artist
Desiderius Erasmus
historical scholar to the New Testament
Sir Thomas More
lawyer who wrote Utopia
Machiavelli
author of princes and discourses. proposed a science of human nature and civil life
shakespeare
playwright and poet
Industrial Revolution
begin with the first cotton mill in 1733, steam engine, factories. child labor laws being
French Explorations
men from france succeeded in going out to other placing and being the founders of different lands
Ponce De Leon
establishes the oldest european settlement in PR and found St Augustine lookn for the fountain of youth
Alonso Alvarez de Pineda
charted the gulf coast from FL to Mexico in 1519
Themes of Geography
location, place, human-environmental interaction, movement, regions
types of coral reef
fringing, atolls and barrier reef
geomorphology
the study of landforms
types of map projections
conical, cylindrical, and azimuthal
7 continents
North and South America, Africa, Australia, Europe, Asia, Antartica,
traits of an empire
a strong military, centralized govt, control and standardization of commerce, money, taxes; a weight system and an official language
13 colonies
Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia Massachutes, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsyvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia
reasons for the rebellion==> American Rev
ppl considered themselves American not english, 7 yr war they were treated as inferiors in the British Army, didnt want ANglincans to take religious control, Taxation, no representation for colonies,
Seven Year War
French and Indian War from 1754-1763
groups/events that contributed the revolution
Sons of liberty, Boston Massacre, Committess of Correspondance, the boston tea party, first contenental congress
Turing Point of the revolution
common sense, DOI, Alliance with France, Treaty of Paris, 2nd continental congress
Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson 7-4-1776
Alliance with France
Benjamin Franklin's negotiation with france to fight with the americans in 1778
Treaty of Paris
officially ended the war and granted independence to the colonies and gave the territorial rights
what happened at the 1787 convention?
a new constitution was written that included the 3 branches of government
Anti-Federalist
those who opposed the new constitution and wanted a bill or rights
Federalist Paper
written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton it xplained the federalist platform
Lousiana Purchase
Thomas Jeffersons "greatest accomplishment" even though it was a very federalist action and he was an antifederalist. 1803 for 15million
The compromise of 1812
allowed those who lived in Mexican Session to decide whether to be free or slave territories
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere or war would happen
Manifest Destiny
belief that it was an American right to expand west
Andrew jackson
beginning of modern democracy, indian removal act 1830, nullification
indian removal act
removed indians from southern states and put them on reservations in the Oklahoma
Whig Party
1833-1856 concerned with defending the supremacy of the congress
Confederate States
North and South carolina, Virginia, Florida, Mississippi. Alabama, Lousisana, Texas, Tennessee. President JD
Union States
Delware, maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. President Ulysses S. Grant unitl 1864
Reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Gilded Age
Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization
Progressive Era
Period of reform from 1890s-1920s. Opposed waste and corruption while focusing on the general rights of the individual. Pushed for social justice, general equality, and public safety. Significants in this movement included trust-busting, Sherman Anti-trust Act, President Theodore Roosevelt, Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act of 1906.`
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
World War 1
War fought from 1914 to 1918 between the Central and Allied Powers. The United States joined the Allied Powers in 1917, helping them to victory.
Allied Powers BFGIRRS
britain, france, greece, italy,russia, romania, and serbia
Central Powers
germany, austria-hungary, bulgaria, and Turkey
World War II
War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology. protection against oppression
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
organization of American States
international organization that promotes peace and economic progress in the Americas
Berlin Blockade
blockaded east germany from american supplies. americans bypassed by air-lifting goods to the germans
Korean War
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
6 basic principles of the constitution
popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balance, judicial review, federalism
Bill of rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
gettysburg address
a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
14 points
(1918) President Woodrow Wilson's plan for organizing post World War I Europe and for avoiding future wars.
address to congress
Woodrow Wilson, persuading Congress to enter WWI, help German people from German govt.
inaugural address
John F, Kennedy, The Government is not Responsible for Everything
berlin address
JFK June 26, 1963 expressed empathy for Berlin in their conflict with the Soviet Union
Brandenburg address
Ronald Reagan June 12, 1987 about the Berlin wall and the end of the cold war "tear this wall down"
4 types of federal tax
income on individual, and corporation, excise tax, custom duties
employment act of 1946
Enacted by Truman, it committed the federal government to ensuring economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to confer with the president and formulate policies for maintaining employment, production, and purchasing power
2 kinds of economies
market and command
characteristics of a market economy
FLIPC- economic Freedom, Limited govt, economic Incentives, Competition, Private ownership
Factors of production
Land, Labor, Capital, and entrepreneurship