RID- NIC Written Knowledge Exam

STUDY
PLAY
CPC- Tenet 1.0
Confidentiality- Interpreters hold a position of trust as linguistic and cultural facilitators of communication. Confidentiality is highly valued by consumers and essential for protecting all involved.
CPC- Tenet 2.0
Professionalism- Interpreters are expected to stay abreast of evolving language use and trends in the profession as well as Deaf community.
CPC Tenet 3.0
Conduct- Interpreters are expected to present themselves appropriately in demeanor and appearance. Avoid situations that result in conflicting roles or perceived or actual conflicts of interest.
CPC Tenet 4.0
Respect for Consumers- Interpreters are expected to honor consumer preferences in selection of interpreters and interpreting dynamics, while recognizing the realities of qualifications, availability, and situation.
CPC Tenet 5.0
Respect for Colleagues- Interpreters are expected to collaborate with colleagues to foster the delivery of effective interpreting services. They also understand that the manner in which they relate to colleagues reflects upon the profession in general.
CPC Tenet 6.0
Business Practices- Interpreters are expected to conduct their business in a professional manner whether in private practice or in the employ of an agency or other entity. Professional interpreters are entitled to a living wage based on their qualifications and expertise. Interpreters are also entitled to working conditions conducive to effective service delivery.
CPC Tenet 7.0
Professional Development- Interpreters are expected to foster and maintain interpreting competence and the stature of the profession through ongoing development of knowledge and skills.
culture
knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired as a member of a group...including language
Deaf Culture
A compilation of experiences and solutions that Deaf people have found to be effective in providing them with productive lives. A shared language, importance of social activities, passing culture through stories and attending residential schools
Deaf Community
Members of the Deaf community are influenced culturally, politically, and practically, individually and collectively by ideas and movements in the surrounding culture
Deaf Culture v. Deaf Community
Deaf community is the people while Deaf culture is their way of life
High Context Cultures
(Deaf Culture) Society where people have close connections over a long period of time.
Low Context Cultures
(Hearing Culture) Societies where people have many connections but of shorter duration or for a specific reason
Proxemics
(social space) the preferred conversational distance between people in different situations. Socially- conversational distance
Personally- furniture, interior of rooms, environment
Kinesics
anything not spoken- non-verbal behaviors such as body language/gestures, facial expressions, or eye gaze
Individualism (Individualist Culture)
30% of world's cultures. Values of society is "what is best for me" Don't ask others, separate from parents- one is encouraged to be independent
Collectivism (Collectivist Culture)
70% of the world's cultures. Strong identity with the group, what is best for the group. Help each other survive, duty to share. You are in or out.
Monochronic Culture
Time is segmented linearly, focus on one thing or person at a time. Meetings are held to strict schedules and the task at hand. Life is compartmentalized
Polychronic Culture
Relationships take precedence over agendas and schedules. take time to find out about other people's lives (Deaf culture)
Past Oriented Cultures
Connected to their history. Keep their traditions such as name signs for Deaf Culture. Don't like change unless agreed upon by the group
Future Oriented Cultures
Focused on change and progress. Change is good.
Deaf Culture is what kinds of cultures?
Collectivist (what is best for the group), High Context (shared knowledge, common experiences, goals and beliefs) Polychronic (people come first), Past Oriented (traditional)
Hearing Cultures is what kinds of cultures?
Low Context, Individualist, Monochronic, and Future Oriented
RID
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf
CMP
Certification Maintenance Program
NTS
National Testing System
ACET
Associate Continuing Education Tracking
VIEWS
Newsletter received by RID members
EPS
Ethical Practices System
SIG
Special Interest Groups
PDC
Professional Development Committee
CSC
Comprehensive Skills Certificate (no longer available as of 1987)
CI/CT
Certificate of Interpretation/Certificate of Transliteration (no longer available)
SC-L
Specialist Certificate:Legal
OIC/OTC
Oral Interpreting Certificate (no longer available) Oral Transliteration Certificate
CDI
Certified Deaf Interpreter
NIC Certified
Scored within the standard range on interview and performance test- past written
NIC Advanced
Scored in the high range of the performance portion- passed NIC knowledge exam- standard range on interview
NIC Master
Scored high range on performance and interview- passed written
EIPA
Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment
NAD
National Association of the Deaf
ACCI
Old NAD certification test- American Consortium of Certified Interpreters
EPC
Ethical Practices Committee
RID Mission Statement
Support the continued growth and development of the profession
When did RID first begin the design and implementation of a national certification system?
1972
What RID officers are there?
Past President, President, VP, Sec, Treasurer, Member at Large, One Regional Rep for each region
Member at Large
A person who works with the region representatives, assists with the coordination of activities, and communication in and among regions
RID Certified Member
make decisions regarding certification
Affiliate Chapters
Local groups of RID- normally one per state
CDI-P
Certified Deaf Interpreter- Provisional
William Stokoe
a hearing linguist now known as the "father of ASL" in the 60s he pushed to have ASL recognized as a language
VR
Vocational Rehab
LRE
Least Restrictive Environment
What are the differences between A, B, and C languages?
A language= L1= person's first language
B language= L2= person's second language
C language=L3= person is aware of the language but not fluent
SL & TL
Source Language-language the message originates in
Target Language- language the message is translated into
What must one have before being able to interpret?
Fluency or a B language understanding in both the SL and TL
Bilingual-Bicultural
Bilingual- having an A and B language
Bicultural- means recognizing that both A and B languages have their own unique history and culture
5 RID Regions
I North East, II South East, III Mid West, IV Central, V Pacific
Education of All Handicapped Children Act- Public Law 94-142
Called for LRE for deaf students in K-12
Rehab Act of 1973
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability
Voc Rehab Act of 1965
Identified sign language interpreting as a service for Deaf clients of VR for the first time, marking the beginning for paid interpreting opportunities for sign language interpreters in the US
IDEA
Individuals with Disabilities Act- in order to receive public funds, states must devleop and implement policies that assure a FAPE (free appropriate public education) to all children with disabilities
FAPE
Free Appropriate Public Education
RSA Grant
The Rehabilitation Services Administration overseas grant programs that help individuals with physical or mental disabilities to obtain employment and live more independently-supports include counseling, medical and psychological services, job training etc
Interpretation
taking a message from the SL to the TL
Transliteration
Taking the message from the SL keeping the grammar the same and changing only words to the TL
Translation
Taking a frozen text from the SL to the TL
AADB
American Association of Deaf Blind
ADA
Americans with Disabilities Act
AGBAD
Alexander Graham Bell Association of the Deaf
ALDA
Association of Late Deafened Adults
ASLTA
American Sign Language Teachers Association
AVLIC
Association of the Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
CASE
Conceptually Accurate Signed English
CC
Certified Council
CEASD
Conference for Executives and Administrators of Schools for the Deaf
CODA
Child of a Deaf Adult
CPC
Code of Professional Conduct
DPN
Deaf President Now
EdITOR
Educational Interpreters and Transliterators
FCC
Federal Communications Commission
HLSS
Hearing Loss Association of America aka SHHH
HVO
High Visual Orientation
IFSP
Individual Family Service Plan
LOVE
Linguistics of Visual English
LSQ
La Langue de Signes Qubecoise
LTA
Local Test Administrators
MCE
Manually Coded English
MCSC
Masters Comprehensive Skills Certificate
NERDA
Not Even Related to a Deaf Adult
NMM or NMS
Non Manual Makers or NMS Non Manual Signals
PSE
Pidgin Sign Language
QA
Quality Assurance
RSI
Repetitive Strain Injury
SEE
Signing Exact English
SHHH
Self Help for Hard of Hearing aka HLAA
SODA
Sibling of a Deaf Adult
SPP
Standard Practice Papers
SSP
Sighted Support Personal/ Support Service Provider
SSS
Sign Supported Speech
TC
Transliteration Certificate
TRS
Telecommunications Relay Service
VRI
Video Relay Interpreting
VRS
Video Relay Service
WASLI
World Association of Sign Language Interpreters
WFD
World Federation of the Deaf
ASL Grammar
Includes syntax, referential space and time, mouth morphemes, sign articulation
backchannel
message- recipient behaviors, such as 'uh-huh', head nod, quizzical look or frown
bilateral interpreting
interpreting voice-to sign and sign to voice aka liason interpreting
open captioning
captioning is part of (embedded in) the original film or transmission- can't turn it off
closed captioning
captioning is added by additional process, can turn it off and on
chunking
to break lengthy dialogue into manageable concept-related pieces
classifiers
used in context to represent something belonging to a semantic class (vehicle, person, animal)
Compression
strategically and consciously "repackaging" or omitting info that is redundant or not relevant in the context of the target language culture, while retaining the intended meaning
Deaf plus
person who is deaf and has, for example, blindness, autism, or CP
Equal Access
available equally to hearing and deaf persons
expansion
strategically and consciously "repackaging" or enhancing discourse feature of a low-context source message to make it linguistically and culturally relevant of meaningful in the target language while maintaining the intended meaning
Gestuno
International Sign Language
Gesture
irregular, imprecise, spontaneous movement that accompanies communication
gloss
quick or basic translation probably lacking completeness
handshape
the way the hand and fingers are configured for sign formulation (one of the five parameters of a sign)
high context
generous detail and related information
HLAA
Hearing Loss Association of America (formally SHHH- non profit organization offering support "for consumers by consumers")
Home signs
Non-standard signs or gestures developed and used among one's family members
Lexical Borrowing
originally from another language by adapted and accepted for standard signing use aka Loan Sign
Low Context
succinctly addresses the matter at hand, offering limited or no detail or background information
message accuracy
correctness and completeness of an interpreted message
message equivalence (dynamic equivalence)
accuracy, plus tone, intent, significant environmental factors etc
mode
method, manner or way of behaving or doing something
oralism
use of teaching speech and speech reading rather than signed communication
prosody
study of metrical structure of verse; a system of verse that includes syntax, lexical choices, and other linguistic elements particular to a language or language system
Qualified Interpreter (ADA)
"An interpreter who is able to interpret effectively, accurately and impartially both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary"
SEE 1
See Essential English- initialized signs, English Grammatical markers used -ed, -ing etc.
SEE 2
Sign Exact English- initialized signs, conceptually accurate signs for English compound words
Sign Negotiation (Neologism or Protologism)
interpreter and consumer agree to temporarily use a "sign" coined ad hoc, for context-specific use
signing space
signs are produced within roughly a two-foot square space in front of the signer
sight interpretation
"on sight" interpretation of written source text- in real time as seen for the first time by the interpreter
tactile interpreting
interpreting, via touch, from or into spoken or signed language
team interpreting
interpreters working together during an interpreting assingment
text
discourse, message, utterance, what is being signed, spoken or written
utterance
something being expressed, a statement
Minimal Language Competency Interpreting
MLS- Minimal Language Skills- persons who have inadequate education, lack of exposure to any language or for other reasons are not competent in any language- they use neither ASL nor English fluently
Pathology of Deafness
Pathology (in general) is the study of disease. Deaf people don't consider themselves to have a disease or problem
Abstract Classifiers
classifiers that are smaller than life size, the shape and movement of which does not necessarily have iconic features
abstract language
generic and lacking in specificity
accessibility
modifications to a building design, program delivery, or forms of communication which will allow Deaf and disabled individuals to gain access to services provided by an institution or agency
Adventitious deafness
to become deaf at some point after birth
affect
refers to emotions or feelings
Benefactors are perfect
an idea frequently held by members of marginalized groups that members of the oppressor group are somehow superbeings, also referred to as "magical thinking"
Cloze Skills (Closure)
the ability to mentally fill-in-the-blanks when part of an utterance is obscured or when the receiver does not understand a term or phrase
code switching
the conscious or unconscious movement from ASL into English-like signing or vice versa
communication dynamics
the way people in a communication interaction react to or engage with one another and to the overall interaction
Conduit or Machine Philosophy
includes the belief of Deaf people as handicapped and needing to learn to take care of themselves
Conference of Interpreter Trainers
an American organization of educators who teach interpretation; membership is international
congenital deafness
to be born deaf or HOH
consultative
one of the individual involved in the interchange has "expert" status or an enhanced command of the topic at hand
consecutive interpretation
the process of interpreting into the TL after the speaker completes one or more ideas in the SL and pauses while the interpreter transmits that information- more accurate that simultaneous interpretation
contact varieties
a mixture of two languages resulting form prolonged language contact between members of different linguistic communities- includes code-switching, code mixing, and lexical borrowing
cultural and linguistic mediation
interpreting in such a way that information has equivalent meaning and impact for individuals with different language; and cultural schema; requires an interpreter to make cultural and linguistic expansions and reductions
cultural expansion
providing the contextual information required to make sense out of something that is signed or said to someone without the requisite schema or experiential frame
cultural reduction
reducing the volume and sometimes the detail of information within an interpretation without affecting the meaning intended
decibels
a unit for expressing the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from zero for the average least perceptible sound to 130 for the average level where sound induces pain
dependence on the "benefactor"
when minority group members being dependent upon members of the power group for certain things they perceive they are unable to do for themselves
discourse style
the way a language requires that information be presented in a monologue or dialogue
dynamic equivalence
in an interpreted event, maintaining the "chemistry" between a speaker and her/his audience that allows connection to be made and the speaker's goals to be accomplished
empowerment of the client
behaving in a way that supports another's right to make decisions
empowerment
a process of reclaiming one's own power in order to take charge of one's own life
arbitrary
actual form of the symbol does not reflect the form of the thing or activity it symbolizes
iconic
the form of the symbol is an icon or picture of some aspect of the thing or activity being symbolized
ASL compounds (examples)
home (eat-sleep) brother (boy same)
Phonology
study of the smallest contrastive units of language
5 Basic parts of ASL signs (parameters)
handshape, movement, location, orientation, nonmanual signals
Glossing
choosing an appropriate English word for signs in order to write them down
William Stokoe
developed first system for describing signs- said signs have 3 parts (location-tab, dez-handshape, sig-movement)
Liddell and Johnson- Movement-Hold Model
claimed signs consist of hold and movement segments
phonological processes
ways in which the parts of signs interact with each other
Movement epenthesis
process of adding a movement segment between signs (father-study)
Hold deletion
eliminates holds between movements when signs occur in sequence (good-idea)
metathesis
sometimes parts of the segments of a sign can change places (deaf) (parents)
assimilation
segment takes on the characteristics of another segment near it- usually the one before or after it (I-know)
morphology
study of the smallest meaningful units in language and how those meaningful units are used to build new words and signs
morpheme
smallest meaningful unit in a language
Nouns in ASL
repeat /reduplicate the segmental structure
Loan Signs
Signs adopted from other countries
Referential meaning
idea, thing, or state of affairs described by the sign or sentence
social meaning
provide info about the social identify of the language user
affective meaning
provides information about the signer's feelings, attitudes, or opinion concerning a pierce of information
Sociolinguistics
study of the interrelationship of language and social structure
3 Major areas of sociolinguistics
variation, discourse, and bilingualism
discourse
refers to any use of language that goes beyond the sentence- how language is organized in conversations
register
language appropriate for a certain occasion
code switching
bilingual person is using one language and then switches to another
lexical borrowing
one language borrows a lexical item (word or sign) from another language
contact signing
contact between English and ASL (formally Pidgin)
equivocal language
deliberate use of words, signs, or phrases that can be interpreted in more than one way in order to mislead someone
euphemistic language
use of socially acceptable terms and phrases in place of blunt, descriptive ones
abstract language
refers to degrees of imprecision in communication (less specific in detail)
passive voice
refers to a statement in which the person or thing performing the action is not overtly stated
5 Registers
frozen, formal, consultative, informal, and intimate
5 Features of our Schema
physical, roles, interactions, psychological, and memberships
marginalization
systematic exclusion of minority group members from quality social services, economic opportunities, health care, and meaningful education
Pathological view of Deaf people
Deaf are viewed as disabled and imperfect needing to be fixed
Cultural view of Deaf people
Deaf are viewed as normal, capable human beings
prosody
the rhythm of speech with pauses and phraseology as well as certain auditory intonation patterns
contrasting
making a statement by presenting the negative and positive of the idea
faceting
use of two or more signed synonyms when conveying a particular concept
reiterating
sign or sign phrase is repeated within the same short utterance (can't go party can't)
couching/nesting
device used to provide information in an introductory expansion or set up to ensure the listener has the schema or frame to understand upcoming discourse (you know...)
SASSes
special set of classifiers (Size And Shape Specifiers)
RID founded
National Registry of Professional Interpreters and Translators for the Deaf- 1964
RID- became incorporated in 1972
RID Membership Categories
Certified, Associate, Supporting, Student, Organizational
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