8.1 Vocab: How Organisms Obtain Energy

How Organisms Obtain Energy
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energy
the ability to do work or cause change
thermodynamics
study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe
first law of thermodynamics
energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another
second law of thermodynamics
when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy, usually heat
autotrophs
organisms that use energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to make organic compounds
heterotrophs
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food
metabolism
the total of the chemical processes in a cell
photosynthesis
the anabolic process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
cellular respiration
the catabolic process whereby certain organisms obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
One of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy
entropy
A measure of the amount of disorder, chaos or randomness in a system; the greater the disorder, the higher the level of entropy.