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A simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. It has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature.
A large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers.
The attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine, that comes from another molecule or chemical group.
The process of splitting a compound into fragments with the addition of water; a kind of reaction that is used to break down polymers into simpler units, e.g. starch into glucose.
Van der Waals forces
The attraction or repulsion of forces because of already created or quickly induced dipoles.
A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds. It can be distinguished from fats and carbohydrates by containing nitrogen.
The building block of protein in which each is coded for by a codon and linked together through peptide bonds. Has NH2 and COOH in it.
The covalent bond joining amino acids, particularly at the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of the other amino acid, with the concomitant release of a molecule of water.
Deal with the conformation of a protein and may be an α-helix or a β-pleated sheet.
The 3D structure that may arise from large proteins when they clump together onto themselves.
When the conformation of a protein is disrupted. If the agent that does this is removed, it can go back to normal.
Stereoisomers of a sugar which differ only in how they are configured about their respective carbonyl (anomeric) carbon atom.
One of two or more molecules that have the same chemical formula but have a different stereochemical arrangement of their atoms.
Phospholipid bond is made from the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the __ carbon of the pentose on the other nucleotide.
Abbreviation for cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a second messenger essential in many biological processes of various organisms.
The dissolved inorganic ions inside and outside the cell. They can also assist as cofactors.
Globular proteins that act as a catalyst, lowering the energy of activation for reactions to increase the rate of reaction.
As more substrate is added, the rate of a reaction increases, but it starts to level off at some point.
Something blocks the substrate at the active site from binding to the enzyme. This is reversible.
It changes the conformation of the enzyme so that the substrate can't bind to the enzyme's active site.
When something blocks the enzyme's ability to function by binding to it. Not reversible.
Proteolytic cleavage, reversible covalent modification, control proteins, and allosteric interactions. What do these four regulate?
The modification of an enzyme configuration resulting from the binding of an activator or inhibitor at a specific binding site on the enzyme.
When a substrate binds to an enzyme, making it easier to bind with more substrate.
When a substrate binds to an enzyme, making more substrate harder to bind to the enzyme.
three parts of metabolism
1) Macromolecule catabolism, 2) Oxidized to acetyl CoA, pyruvate, other metabolites, 3) If oxygen available, mixes with metabolites to citric acid cycleto make energy.
First stage of anaerobic and aerobic respiration. Breaks 6-carbon glucose molecule to 2 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate.
substrate level phosphorylation
The 3-carbon molecules in respiration give up one phosphate to make ADP into ATP.
Fermentation occurs with the lack of oxygen or when there isn't enough ____ and ____.
When pyruvate is inside the matrix of the mitochondrion, it is turned into ____, and CO2 is released.
1 ATP, 1 FADH2, 3NADH
Krebs cycle makes ___, ____, and ___, and is called substrate-level phosphorylation.
electron transport chain
This couples electron transfer between an electron donor (such as NADH) and an electron acceptor (such as O2) with the transfer of H+ ions (protons) across a membrane. The resulting electrochemical proton gradient is used to generate chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ATP from the phosphorylation of ADP with inorganic phosphate, using a form of energy, such as the energy from a proton gradient.
A metabolic pathway that generates ATP from ADP through phosphorylation that derives the energy from the oxidation of nutrients.
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