They store metabolic energy and provide thermal insulation and padding.
A simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. It has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature.
An alcohol containing multiple hydroxyl groups.
Structural components of membranes.
Are lipids with a carbohydrate attached.
They regulate metabolic activity.
A large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers.
Some serve as local hormones, such as eicosanoids.
The attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine, that comes from another molecule or chemical group.
The process of splitting a compound into fragments with the addition of water; a kind of reaction that is used to break down polymers into simpler units, e.g. starch into glucose.
Of, or relating to, a molecule having hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.
Van der Waals forces
The attraction or repulsion of forces because of already created or quickly induced dipoles.
A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds. It can be distinguished from fats and carbohydrates by containing nitrogen.
The building block of protein in which each is coded for by a codon and linked together through peptide bonds. Has NH2 and COOH in it.
The covalent bond joining amino acids, particularly at the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of the other amino acid, with the concomitant release of a molecule of water.
Other name for proteins.
How many amino acids are essential to humans?
_____ amino acids are ones that must be ingested because the body can't make them.
Amino acids differ in this structurally. They are also called R groups.
Sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
Deal with the conformation of a protein and may be an α-helix or a β-pleated sheet.
The 3D structure that may arise from large proteins when they clump together onto themselves.
When two or more polypeptide chains bind together.
When the conformation of a protein is disrupted. If the agent that does this is removed, it can go back to normal.
Two types of proteins?
Most abundant protein in the body and is a a structural protein.
Mixture of proteins and carbohydrates that is mostly carbohydrates.
A class of hemoprotein found in mitochondria that transport electron or protons.
Proteins with nonproteinaceous components are called _______ proteins.
The most commonly occuring six-carbon carbohydrate.
Stereoisomers of a sugar which differ only in how they are configured about their respective carbonyl (anomeric) carbon atom.
In glucose, ____ break alpha linkages.
In glucose, ____ break beta linkages.
Plants make starch and cellulose from what?
Starch comes in these two forms.
Amylose is an ____ of cellulose.
One of two or more molecules that have the same chemical formula but have a different stereochemical arrangement of their atoms.
____ digest glycogen, ____ digest cellulose.
Made of a five-carbon sugar; a nitrogenous base; and a phosphate group.
Adenine, guanosine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
The bonds that hold nucleic acids together to make DNA and RNA.
Phospholipid bond is made from the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the __ carbon of the pentose on the other nucleotide.
What binds with thymine?
What binds with adenine?
What binds with guanine?
What binds with cytosine?
The (top/bottom) strands runs 5'->3'.
The (top/bottom) strands runs 3'->5'.
What replaces thymine in RNA?
ATP is a (protein/carbohydrate/nucleotide/lipid).
Abbreviation for cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a second messenger essential in many biological processes of various organisms.
The dissolved inorganic ions inside and outside the cell. They can also assist as cofactors.
An inorganic complement of an enzyme reaction, usually a metal ion.
Globular proteins that act as a catalyst, lowering the energy of activation for reactions to increase the rate of reaction.
Are enzymes consumed in a reaction?
Do enzymes alter equilibrium of a reaction?
Reactant which enzyme uses.
Place where substrate bonds to enzyme.
When an enzyme is made for a certain substrate that fits in a certain way.
When the enzyme and substrate alter their shape a little to fit together.
As more substrate is added, the rate of a reaction increases, but it starts to level off at some point.
Does temperature affect reaction rate?
Does pH affect reaction rate?
What is the degrees Celcius for the best temperature for enzymatic reactions.
Cofactors can be coenzymes or ______.
Many coenzymes are _____ or their derivatives.
competitive, irreversible, noncompetitive
The three types of enzymatic inhibition are?
Something blocks the substrate at the active site from binding to the enzyme. This is reversible.
It changes the conformation of the enzyme so that the substrate can't bind to the enzyme's active site.
When something blocks the enzyme's ability to function by binding to it. Not reversible.
Proteolytic cleavage, reversible covalent modification, control proteins, and allosteric interactions. What do these four regulate?
Inactive form of an enzyme.
Inactive form of an enzyme.
cleavage of peptides
A zymogen/proenzyme is activated by ___ _ ___.
Suffix for a proenzyme/zymogen?
Are some enzymes activated or deactivated by phosphorylation?
These are protein subunits that activate or inhibit enzymes, like G-proteins.
The modification of an enzyme configuration resulting from the binding of an activator or inhibitor at a specific binding site on the enzyme.
When the creation of end product stops the reaction from going on.
When the creation of end products makes it make more product.
When a substrate binds to an enzyme, making it easier to bind with more substrate.
When a substrate binds to an enzyme, making more substrate harder to bind to the enzyme.
Suffix for an enzyme?
A (kinase/phosphatase) is an enzyme that phosphorylates something.
A (kinase/phosphatase) is an enzyme that dephosphorylates something.
An ion or molecule that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
All cellular chemical reactions.
three parts of metabolism
1) Macromolecule catabolism, 2) Oxidized to acetyl CoA, pyruvate, other metabolites, 3) If oxygen available, mixes with metabolites to citric acid cycleto make energy.
Energy-aquiring stage in the metabolism.
2 types of respiration?
Respiration where oxygen is not needed.
First stage of anaerobic and aerobic respiration. Breaks 6-carbon glucose molecule to 2 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate.
Does glycolysis act where there is and isn't oxygen?
Where does glycolysis occur?
Can phosphorylated molecules go through the membrane?
substrate level phosphorylation
The 3-carbon molecules in respiration give up one phosphate to make ADP into ATP.
Fructose and glucose are ___-saccharides.
In respiration, _ ATP are spent and _ ATP are made.
Galactose can be converted to ____ to then be used in respiration.
A name for anaerobic respiration.
Fermentation has glycolysis and the ____ acid cycle.
Fermentation occurs with the lack of oxygen or when there isn't enough ____ and ____.
Fermentation turns NADH into ____.
Respiration that requires oxygen.
matrix of a mitochondrion
If anaerobic respiration is possible, glycolysis product goes to ___.
Which part of the mitochondrion is less permeable? Inner or outer?
When pyruvate is inside the matrix of the mitochondrion, it is turned into ____, and CO2 is released.
Is acetyl CoA an enzyme or coenzyme?
1 ATP, 1 FADH2, 3NADH
Krebs cycle makes ___, ____, and ___, and is called substrate-level phosphorylation.
electron transport chain
This couples electron transfer between an electron donor (such as NADH) and an electron acceptor (such as O2) with the transfer of H+ ions (protons) across a membrane. The resulting electrochemical proton gradient is used to generate chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Where is the electron transport chain?
Electrons go down the ETC to be accepted by ____.
As electrons are passed down the ETC, ____ are pumped into the membrane.
The energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ATP from the phosphorylation of ADP with inorganic phosphate, using a form of energy, such as the energy from a proton gradient.
Net ATP production from fermentation?
A metabolic pathway that generates ATP from ADP through phosphorylation that derives the energy from the oxidation of nutrients.