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While flexing the forearm at the elbow joint, the _____.

Triceps acts as an antagonist

The neurotransmitter used by the nervous system to activate skeletal muscle cells is acetylcholine. (True/False)


Most joints of the body function as a _____ lever system.

Third Class

What happens to the center of gravity during a pregnancy?

Center of gravity is moved forward.

Muscle contraction will always promote movement of body parts regardless of how they are attached. (True/False)


Mumps is a common childhood disease that includes inflammation of the _____.

Parotid glands

The enamel found on teeth is heavily mineralized with calcium salts and comprises the hardest substance within the entire body. (True/False)


The protein molecule must be digested by enzymes secreted by _____.

Pancreas, Small Intestine, and Stomach

The products of protein digestion enter the bloodstream largely through cells lining ____.

The small intestine

The small intestine is said to be "small because it is shorter in length than the large intestine. (True/False)


When the ventricles contract, the left A-V valve prevents blood from flowing from the _____.

Left ventricle to the left atrium

The aorta is the largest artery within the pulmonary circulation. (True/False)


The common route for blood flow is heart -> arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venules -> veins -> heart. There are exceptions to this route, notable protal systems and anastomoses. In a portal system blood flows from one _____ to another, while in the anastomoses blood flow from one _____ to another.

Capillary bed; artery or vein

Which of the following has the thickest muscle layer?

Tunica media of a conducting artery

In reporting blood pressure, the first number (upper) is the _1_ pressure and represents ventricular _2_.

systolic, contraction

Exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by __?__.

simple diffusion

The respiratory movement representing the total amount of exchangeable air is the __?__.

vital capacity

The general term for inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues regardless of the cause is called hypoxia. (True/False)


The walls of the alveoli are composed largely of __?__

simple squamous epithelium

Which of the following correctly traces the route of air flow in the respiratory tract?

pharynx → larynx → trachea → bronchi → bronchiole

Erythropoiesis is stimulated by a hormone that is secreted by

the kidneys.

The universal donor is type

O, Rh negative.

Lymph fluid exits a lymph node at the indented hilus region via afferent lymphatic vessels. (True/False)


Which one of the following is NOT a type of T cell clone:

antibody-producing T cells

The daughter cells of B cells, called plasma cells, release antibodies. (True/False)


The glomerular filtrate most resembles


The ion that creates an osmotic and electrical gradient that drives the reabsorption of water and other solutes is


The nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma without blood proteins is called


In contrasting urine and filtrate by the time it reaches the collecting ducts, it could be said that:

filtrate contains almost everything that blood plasma does

A simple rule concerning water and electrolyte regulation is:

water passively follows salt

Hypoglycemic hormones are secreted in response to excessively low blood glucose levels


The adult pituitary is connected by a stalk to the roof of the nasal cavity.


Destruction of the β cells of the pancreas would cause a loss of ___ secretion.


Which one of the following is NOT an anterior pituitary hormone:

antidiuretic hormone

The element necessary in the diet for proper thyroid function is:


During which phase of meiosis do tetrads form?

Prophase I

The diploid number of chromosomes in a human skin cell is 46. The number of chromosomes found in a human egg cell is


Urine and sperm are able to pass through the urethra at the same time.


The hormone secreted in increasing amounts during puberty that causes the sperm to mature is _?_.

follicle-stimulating hormone

The journey of the oocyte through the uterine tubes to the uterus following ovulation normally takes:

3-4 days

Heart Picture

A- Sinoatrial node (SA Node)
B- Atrioventricular node (AV Node)
C- Atrioventricular bundle (Bundle of His)
D- Bundle Branches
E- Purkinje Fibers

Respiratory Volumes

A- Air in respiratory passages that does not contribute to gas exchange.
B- Amount of air that can be exhaled (forcibly) after a normal exhalation.
C- none
D- Gas volume that allows gas exchange to go on continuously
E- Respiratory volume inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing.
F- Respiratory volume inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing.

Lymphatic System

A- The lymph duct is indicated by letter _?_.
B- A lymph node is indicated by letter _?_
C- Lymphatic collecting vessels are indicated by letter _?_.
D- A lymph capillary is indicated by letter _?_
E- Blood capillaries are indicated by letter _?_

Barriers to infection

A- Provide chemical barriers in the stomach
B- Have antimicrobial activity. Found in tears
C- Provide mechanical barrier in internal organs.
D- Entraps microorganisms entering the respiratory passages
E- Provide chemical barriers by attaching to foreign cells.
F- Have antimicrobial activity. Found in oil.
G- Provide mechanical barrier in externally.


A- Bowman's Capsule
B- Proximal Convoluted Tubule
C- Loop of Henle (Nehpron loop)
D- Collecting Duct
E- Distal convoluted tubule

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