APES Chapter 15
Terms in this set (35)
Area strip mining
Type of surface mining used where the terrain is flat. An earthmover strips away the overburden, and a power shovel digs a cut to remove the mineral deposit. After removal of the mineral, the trench is filled with overburden, and a new cut is made parallel to the previous one. The process is repeated over the entire site. Compare dredging, mountaintop removal, open-pit mining, subsurface mining.
Contour strip mining
Form of surface mining used on hilly or mountainous terrain. A power shovel cuts a series of terraces into the side of a hill. An earthmover removes the overburden, and a power shovel extracts the coal, with the overburden from each new terrace dumped onto the one below. Compare area strip mining, dredging, mountaintop removal, open-pit mining, subsurface mining.
Convergent plate boundary
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
The central part of the Earth.
The outer layer of the Earth.
The time it takes to use a certain fraction, usually 80%, of the known or estimated supply of a nonrenewable resource at an assumed rate of use. Finding and extracting the remaining 20% usually costs more than it is worth.
Divergent plate boundary
Boundary between tectonic plates in which the two plates move away from each other, and new crust is created between them.
Type of surface mining in which chain buckets and draglines scrape up sand, gravel, and other surface deposits covered with water. It is also used to remove sediment from streams and harbors to maintain shipping channels.
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another.
Deposits of a particular mineral-bearing material of which the location, quantity, and quality are known or have been estimated from direct geological evidence and measurements. Compare undiscovered resources.
Produced by fire, great heat, or the action of a volcano; solidified from a molten state. Igneous rock is formed by the cooling and solidification of magma.
The solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle.
The molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle.
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
Concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material in or on the earth's crust in a form and amount such that extracting and converting it into useful materials or items is currently or potentially profitable. Mineral resources are classified as metallic (such as iron and tin ores) or nonmetallic (such as fossil fuels, sand, and salt).
Type of surface mining that uses explosives, massive shovels, and even larger machinery called draglines to remove the top of a mountain to expose seams of coal underneath a mountain.
Nonrenewable mineral resource
A concentration of naturally occurring nonrenewable material in or on the earth's crust that can be extracted and processed into useful materials at an affordable cost.
Removing minerals such as gravel, sand, and metal ores by digging them out of the earth's surface and leaving an open pit.
A mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined for profit.
The surface soil that must be moved away to get at coal seams and mineral deposits.
A theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move.
Resources that have been identified and from which a usable mineral can be extracted profitably at present prices with current mining technology.
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
The process by which ore is melted to separate the useful metal from other elements.
Unwanted rock and other waste materials produced when a material is removed from the earth's surface or subsurface by mining, dredging, quarrying, and excavation.
A process in which rock and soil are stripped from earths surface to expose the underlying materials to be mined.
The region where an oceanic plate sinks down into the asthenosphere at a convergent boundary, usually between continental and oceanic plates.
The sinking of regions of the Earth's crust to lower elevations.
The extraction of mineral and energy resources from deep underground deposits.
The extraction of mineral and energy resources near Earth's surface by first removing the soil, subsoil, and overlying rock strata.
Rock and other waste materials removed as impurities when waste mineral material is separated from the metal in an ore.
Individual sections of the lithosphere of the earth. They fit together in a way similar to a jigsaw puzzle, but are always moving very slowly, floating on the molten rock of the lower mantle.
Area where the earth's lithospheric plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fracture (fault) in the lithosphere.
The decomposition and disintegration of rocks and minerals at the earth's surface by a mechanical and chemical process.
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