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Questions from old tests to study for the psych final. These questions are from Test 2.

Classical conditioning refers to what?

Learning associations between events and the environment

Which of the following is an example of an unconditioned response? Shivering on a cold day, pulling your hand away from a hot flame, blinking your eye when hair gets in it, all of the above

All of the above

Susan has conditioned her cats to come running when she shakes the box of treats. In this case, the treats serve to be the:

conditioned stimulus (CS)

When the CR occurs after the CS, ______ has taken place


When the US no longer preceds the CS, after a period of time the ________ will disappear through the process of _________

CR, Extinction

According to Thorndike's law of effect:

any behavior that results in a negative consequence is likely to be extinguised

As punishment for starting an argument, your boyfriend responds with a sarcastic response. Accoring to operant conditioning principles, your bf's response is a type of ______ that will ________ the probably of Angela's starting another argument

reinforcement, increase

if a kid throws a tantrum at the checkout counter and the mom gives in and buys him candy, the candy is an example of ______ and will __________ the probability that the kid will throw another tantrum.

reinforcement, increase

According to the principles of operant conditioning, positive= __________, and negative=_________.

presented, removed

Carla hates to do the dishes, as a reward for good grades her mom tells her she doesn't have to do the dishes for a week, NOT doing the dishes best represents what?

negative reinforcer

Which of the following is the best example of a secondary reinforcer? coat when you're cold, gold star for good work, cool drink when you're thirsty, good meal when you're hungry

Gold star for good work

Slot machines provide reinforcement on a ______ schedule, whereas pop quizzes operate on a ______ schedule

variable-ratio, variable-interval

Reinforcing the first response given once a set interval has elapsed is _______ as delivering reinforcement after a different time on each trial is _____

fixed-interval, variable-interval

What are the findings of Bandura's experiment with Bobo Dolls?

Children imitated behavior they observed despite knowing the consequences of the behavior

Shaping is used for acquistion of a response in which type of learning?


Tolman's research on maze running rats demonstrated:

Biological constraints and instinctual drift

Generalization leads to the CR in _______ circumstances and discrimination leads to the CR in _______ circumstances

Broader, Narrower

You used to associate the smell of cookies with your grandma, but you don't anymore. Then one day you smell cookies and it reminds you of her, this is an example of:

Spontaneous recovery

Extinction is the disappearance of the:

conditioned response when the unconditioned responses no longer follows the conditioned stimulus

Compared to fixed schedules of partial reinforcement, variable schedules lead to ______ periods with no responding and are _____ resistant to extinction

Fewer, more

According to Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory, in what sequence does incoming information flow through memory?

Sensory memory ->short term memory -> long term memory

For most Americans, the acronym USA, is ____ chunk(s); the date 1776 is ____ chunk(s)


The brain area important for the formation of emotional memories is the ______ and the brain area that is important in the formation of procedural memories is the _______

amygdala, cerebellum

In free recall task, items for the middle of the list are typically recalled ____ frequently than those at the beginning of the list and _____ frequently than those at the end of the list

less, less

Encoding is:

the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in short-term or long-term memory

Which of the following is an example of elaborative processing?

to remember the concept 'procedural' memory, you think of your experience riding a bike

Storage is:

the process of maintaining information in a particular stage

On an exam, fill in-the-blank questions are examples of _______ and true/false questions are examples of_______

recall, recognition

Can't remember old gf's number because he dials new gf's number all the time is what kind of interference?


Can't remember new pizza number because you are used to old pizza number is an example of what kind of interference?


According to Baddely's working memory model, the central executive has 2 assistants, the _____ and the ______

phonological loop, visuospatial working memory

The general knowledge of how to behave in church is called a _____.


When you connect something to yourself or something close to you, you are processing the word at what level?

deep level

Short-term memory has a ____ capacity than sensory memory and a _____ duration

more limited, longer

You can recite a phone number back perfectly due to your

memory span

Unrehearsed information stored in short-term memory lasts about

30 seconds

If you are asked to remember your life before you started smoking, you are using what memory system to comply with the request?

episodic memory system

An individual's autobiographical memory forms the core of the individual's _____

personal identity

Binet and Simon developed an intelligence test for the French School system to:

determine which children were above average intelligence

Lewis Terman is responsible for developing the

Standford-Binet test of intelligence

The formula used when calculating an intelligence quotient is

(mental age/chronological age) x 100

A test in which the test scores are consistent is said to have a high degree of


A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of:


Regarding theories of intelligence, Charles Spearman believed that ____ was most important and Thrustone believed that _____ was most important

fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence

Which of the following is NOT one Thrustone's seven primary mental abilities

Musical ability

According to Cattell, the g factor includes which of the following types of intelligence

linguistic and logical-mathematical

Which of the following in NOT one of Gardner's multiple intelligences?

abstract reasoning

Scott is good at understanding other people. It is most likely that h would score highly on Gardner's measure of _____ intelligence.


Of Gardner's eight intelligences, which two are the least controversial?

Linguistic and logical-mathematical

What are the three types of intelligences in Sternberg's triarchic theory?

Analytical, creative, and practical

If a test has been standardized, it: yields consistent results every time, ability to predict performance on future test, scores that assume the bell shaped curve (normal distribution), all of the above

all of the above

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