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D. F. Malan

first leader of the National Party, began apartheid

Native Land Act

restricted blacks to a certain area of South African territory

African National Congress

first formed as protest against apartheid, then became leading party in 1994 elections

Bantu Education Act

created separate education system for blacks

Great Trek

migration of Boers away from British

Hendrik Verwoerd

Prime Minister of South Africa, banned ANC, started the Pass Laws

Frederick Willem de Klerk

last last president of apartheid, helped end it

Pass Laws

restricted movement of blacks

Desmond Tutu

voice of South Africa, won Nobel Peace Prize

five countries permanently in UN security council

U.S., Russia, Great Britain, France, China

Marshall Plan

massive aid package to rebuild Europe

Helmut Kohl

helped fully unify the two Germany's

Geneva Peace Accords

Peace Treaty between French and Vietnamese

Ngo Dinh Diem

president of GVN

Ho Chi Minh

later leader of DRV

White Paper

1961 report which criticized the NLF

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

gave president Johnson broad war powers to invade Vietnam

Operation Rolling Thunder

bombing missions on Vietnam executed by the U.S. from 1960-64

Paris Peace Agreement

peace treaty between U.S. and North VIetnam

Dien Bien Phu

decisive battle between French and Vietnam, victory for Vientnamese

Nikita Khrushchev

Soviet ruler who wanted to be less harsh than Stalin, but still had very strong government control

Leonid Brezhnev

USSR leader, in his rule bureaucracy incresed and the economy greatly declined

Brezhnev Doctrine

declared that the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.

Salt Treaties

temporarily froze U.S.-Soviet nuclear weapon buildup

Velvet Revolution

mass protests in Czechoslovakia, led by students, resulted in resignation of communist government there

Yuri Andropov

ruled Russia for 2 years, tried to boost economy

Mikhail Gorbachev

Russian leader who tried to end Cold War tension, slowly dismantled communism

Goulash Communism

name given to Khrushchev's style of rule, a little more lenient than Stalins




restructured government and economy

Boris Yelstin

set up and became president of the first Russian Republic, completely threw away communism

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