H. Bio Summer Review Test
Terms in this set (32)
Define a monosaccharide
Simplest form of a carbohydrate, single sugar
Define a disaccharide
Double sugar, two simple sugar
Define a polysaccharide
Any number of sugars (2+)
What is sucrose?
Single sugar, compound that makes up sugar
What is glucose?
Two sugars, important energy source in living organisms
What is fructose?
Sugar found in honey and fruit
What is the basic structure of a lipid?
Fat/oil, big long chains of carbon and hydrogen
What is the basic structure of a protein?
Muscle, enzymes, structures within a cell, made of amino acids
Compare a carbohydrate, lipid, protein, and an amino acid
Proteins are made of amino acids. Carbohydrates (sugars) are made oxygen. Lipids are made of fats and oils. Both lipids and carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
What is the basic structure of nucleic acids?
They have a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogen base. They build DNA and RNA. They're made of nucleotides.
Compare RNA and DNA
DNA-Makes up ourselves, double-stranded, hydrogen and covalent bonds
They're the blueprints for life
Describe a model
Represents an idea or object
Describe a law
A statement of nature that seems to be true all the time
Describe a theory
An explanation of things or events using observations and knowledge gained from multiple investigations
Define an independent variable
The variable in the experiment that is adjusted by the experimenter (cause)
Define a dependent variable
The variable whose value changes as a result of changes in other variables (effect)
What is an element?
A simple substance
What is an atom?
Smallest amount of an element
What is a molecule?
Two or more atoms
What is a compound?
Two or more elements
What is a chemical change? Give an example.
A change of one substance to another (i.e.; burning, rusting, and formation of a gas)
What is a physical change? Give an example.
A change in the size, shape, or state of matter (i.e.; crumpling paper or breaking a window)
What is an iconic bond?
Electrons transferred, gained, or lost (between a metal and a nonmetal)
What is a covalent bond?
Sharing of electrons between nonmetals
What is a peptide bond?
Sharing still, covalent bond between amino acids for a protein
Explain the pH scale
Measures how acidic or basic a substance is. Ranges from 0-14. 0 is the most acidic, 7 is neutral, and 14 is base
Describe the difference between polar and non-polar compounds, give an example of each.
Polar: Able to dissolve in water, slight charges
Non-Polar: Equal sharing
Describe the law of conservation of matter
The law of conservation of matter is that matter cannot be created nor destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another.
What is another name for rows and columns on the periods table?
The rows are called periods and the columns are called groups.
What do the dots mean in a dot diagram?
The outer electrons
What is a valence electron, what can it do?
To determine whether an element can bond
What is the most common source of energy between marcomolecules.