25 terms

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment Terms

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Copernicus
first astronomer to propose or introduce the heliocentric theory
Kepler
3 laws of planetary motion: planets move in elliptical orbits
Galileo
proved heliocentric theory through the use of the telescope; sun has dark spots; Jupiter has 4 moons, Earth's moon has a rough surface
Newton
Laws of Motion - Law of universal gravity
Descartes
Analytic geometry - Deductive reasoning; "I think' therefore I am."
Locke
Natural Rights: Life, Liberty, Property;
People by nature are good and can learn from their experiences
Hobbes
Absolute monarchy is the best form of government (one person rule/authoritative rule).
People by nature are evil and selfish.
Montesquieu
Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances: The power of government should be shared.
Rousseau
Government should reflect the "general will' of the people.
Voltaire
Freedom of speech, religion, press are fundamental rights of all humans
Wollstonecraft
Advocated rights of women. Women should be allowed to be educated
Salons
Organized by women to spread Enlightenment ideas.
Ptolemy
Ancient philosopher who believed in the geocentric theory - earth centered universe
Heliocentric theory
Sun-centered universe
Geocentric theory
Earth-centered universe
scientific method
a systematic procedure to prove something to be true. consists of a hypothesis, experimentation, observation, evidence, and conclusion
Galen
ancient philosopher who declared the human anatomy was identical to pigs and animals
Vesalius
defined the actual anatomy of the human body through dissection. Overturned Galen's information
Beccaria
Against cruel and unusual punishment. Believed the degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime
Jenner
created first vaccination. small pox vaccination
Boyle
father of modern chemistry. Boyle's law
Fahrenheit
first thermometer to use mercury in glass. water freezes at 32 degrees
Janssen
developed first microscope
van Leeuwenhoek
observed bacteria under a microscope and examined red blood cells
Bacon
experiment, then draw conclusions. led to the development of the scientific method