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Terms in this set (...)

Behavior Analysis
The scientific study of principals of learning and behavior
ABA
-Applied Behavior Analysis
-Approach to modifying socially important behaviors
-Addressing challenging behaviors by identifying variables that influence those behaviors
-Evidence based treatment
BACB
-Behavior Analyst Certification Board
-Governing board that meets professional credentialing need
BCBA
-Board Certified Behavior Analyst
-Graduate level certification in Behavior analysis
BCaBA
-Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst
- Undergraduate level certification in behavior analysis
RBT
-Registered Behavior Technician
-Paraprofessional who practices under the close, ongoing supervision of a BCBA or BCaBA
-Primarily responsible for the direct implementation of behavior-analytic services
Autism
A variable developmental disorder that appears by age 3 and is characterized by:
-impairment of the ability to form normal social relationships
-impairment of the ability to communicate with others
-stereotyped behavior patterns
DSM-5
Used to diagnose Autism
Prevalence of Autism
-1/68 in year 2010
-4 to 5 times higher in males than females
-onset before age 3
Deficits
Behaviors that typical developing children engage in and children with Autism do NOT engage in enough (0r possible at all)
Excess
Behaviors that all children engage in, but children with Autism engage in too often/excessively
Deficits in children with Autism
-Language
-Play
-Social Skills
-Perspective Taking (Theory of Mind)
-Executive Function
-Motor Skills
-Self-Help
-School-Skills
Excesses in children with Autism
-Stereotypy
-Non-Compliance
-Aggression
Stereotypy
Repetitive behaviors that children with Autism engage in with objects or with their bodies (hand flapping, staring at objects out of the corner of their eye)
The term contingency of behavior
ABC's
ABC's of behavior
A=Antecedent
B=Behavior
C=Consequence
Antecedent
The event that immediately precedes the behavior
Two types of antecedents
-Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
-Motivating Operation (MO)
SD
-A stimulus that signals the availability of a reinforcement
-Can include demands (questions, instructions) or Stimuli (using preferred stimuli vs. non-preferred stimuli)
MO
-how motivated a person is to engage in a behavior (or not engage)
-can increase or decrease the likelihood of a behavior
The Dead Man's Test
If a dead man can do it, its not a behavior. And if a dead man can't do it, then its a behavior
Consequence
What immediately follows the behavior
Reinforcement
increases the future frequency of that behavior
Punishment
decreases the suture frequency of that behavior
Positive Reinforcement
-Introduction of a preferred stimulus, which increases the suture frequent of a behavior
-Giving something
Negative Reinforcement
-Removal of an aversive stimulus, which increases the future frequency of a behavior
-Taking something away
Positive Punishment
Introduction of an aversive stimulus, which decreases the future frequency of a behavior
Negative Punishment
Removal of a preferred stimulus, which decreases the future frequency of behavior
Skill Acquisition
-Increasing deficits
-manipulate antecedents and consequences to increase skills that are deficits
Behavior Management
-Decreasing excesses
-manipulating antecedents and consequences to decrease behaviors
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention
-EIBI
-created by Lovaas
-well-known for providing intensive ABA treatment to children with Autism
-Treatment can be maxed if intervention is initiated early, intensive, and comprehensive (addresses all skill deficits and excesses)
10 components of EIBI
-treatment should begin early
-intervention should be intensive
-intervention must be behavioral
-treatment is individualized for each child
-treatment must be comprehensive
-treatment should occur in the child's natural environment
-active parent involvement
-opportunity to learn and interact with typical peers
-duration of treatment
-treatment supervision
Verbal Behavior
-involves social interactions between speakers and listeners
-language acquisition
-includes all forms of communication (sign, pictures, gestures, written language, spoken language)
-reinforced through the mediation of another person's behavior (communicating/conversations)
Structural linguists and Speech Pathologists focus on the ___ properties of language
Formal
Verbal behavior focuses on the ____ properties of language
Functional
Verbal Operants
Functional units of language
-echoic
-tact
-mand
-interverbal
Point-to-point correspondence
does the response match the form of the stimulus? (sd/echoic)
Formal similarity
are both the response and stimulus in the same mode? (verbal, auditory, tactile)
Echoic
speaker repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker
Mand
-speaker asks for (or implies) what he/she wants or needs
-consequence is a specific reinforcement related to the relevant motivation operation (the person gets what the person wants)
-directly benefit the speaker
Tact
-the speaker names things or actions in the immediate physical environment
-labeling
-non-specific reinforcement
Interverbal
-the speaker responds to the verbal behavior of others
-can occur in the form of asking questions, singing songs, telling stories, describing activities
-talking about things that are not in their current environment
-non-specific reinforcement
Impure Verbal Operant
when the conditions are controlled by multiple antecedents or consequences
Discrete Trial Training (DTT)
-presenting a learning opportunity and reinforcing the correct response
-breaking down a skill into smaller parts
-drill work with correct response reinforcement
-a lot of repetition
-effective for teaching skills that are not intrinsically motivating
Naturalistic Environment Teaching (NET)
-Teaching methods that provides learning opportunities within naturally occurring activities
-looser structure
Fluency based instruction
-teaching to a predetermined optimal rate if accurate responses
-useful for teaching skills where speed is as important as accuracy such as reading, typing, and basic math
Prompting
-a supplementary antecedent stimuli used to assist individuals in the skill acquisition process
-helps them get the answer right
Shaping
-Systematically reinforcing successive approximations to a terminal behavior
-Breaking down a goal and reinforcing each step
Chaining
-A behavior chain is a specific sequence of discrete responses
-when the components are linked, the result is a terminal outcome
-each step is the chain serves as a cue for the nest step