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Bio Chapter 7

science vocab and notes for chapter 7
STUDY
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autotroph
organism that makes its own food
photosynthesis
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
producer
organism that makes its own food and produces organic molecules that serve as food for other organisms in its ecosystem
heterotroph
organism that obtains food by eating other organisms
consumer
organism that obtains food by eating producers or other consumers
cellular respiration
chemical process that uses oxygen to convert energy in organic molecules into ATP
kinetic energy
energy of motion
potential energy
energy stored due to an objects position or arrangement
thermal energy
total amount of energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules
chemical energy
potential to perform work due to an arrangement of atoms within molecules
calorie
amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gallon of water 1 degree Celsius
ATP
ADP+P=___
ATP
Main energy source that cells use for most of their work
adenosine
consists of a nitrogen containing compound called adenine and a five-carbon sugar called ribose
3 phosphate groups
a triphosphate tail consists of # ____ groups.
negatively
a phosphate group is ____ charged.
main types of cellular work driven by ATP
chemical work, mechanical work, transport work
metabolism
all of a cell's chemical processes
gycolysis
the splitting in half of a glucose molecule; the first stage of cellular respiration and fermentation
krebs cycle
stage of cellular respiration that finishes the breakdown of pruvic acid molecules to carbon dioxide, releasing energy
ATP synthase
protein structure in a cell mitochondria that uses energy from H+ ions to convert ADP to ATP
hemoglobin
protein that binds the bonds oxygen and CO2
muscle fiber
parallel to one another, tiny tubes, many nucleus, made up of myofibrils
myofibrils
does contractions in muscles
1. calcium ions are released from cell
2. tropomyosin falls off of actim
3. ATP bonds to mysosin head to make it change shape
4. ADP causes it to bond with the actim and pulls it shorter
5. releases ADP
muscle contraction steps
aerobic
requiring oxygen
electron transport chain
sequence of electron carrier molecules that transfer electrons and release energy during cellular respiration
glucose +O2 --> CO2 + H2O + ATP
cellular respiration equation