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science vocab and notes for chapter 7


organism that makes its own food


process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars


organism that makes its own food and produces organic molecules that serve as food for other organisms in its ecosystem


organism that obtains food by eating other organisms


organism that obtains food by eating producers or other consumers

cellular respiration

chemical process that uses oxygen to convert energy in organic molecules into ATP

kinetic energy

energy of motion

potential energy

energy stored due to an objects position or arrangement

thermal energy

total amount of energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules

chemical energy

potential to perform work due to an arrangement of atoms within molecules


amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gallon of water 1 degree Celsius




Main energy source that cells use for most of their work


consists of a nitrogen containing compound called adenine and a five-carbon sugar called ribose

3 phosphate groups

a triphosphate tail consists of # ____ groups.


a phosphate group is ____ charged.

main types of cellular work driven by ATP

chemical work, mechanical work, transport work


all of a cell's chemical processes


the splitting in half of a glucose molecule; the first stage of cellular respiration and fermentation

krebs cycle

stage of cellular respiration that finishes the breakdown of pruvic acid molecules to carbon dioxide, releasing energy

ATP synthase

protein structure in a cell mitochondria that uses energy from H+ ions to convert ADP to ATP


protein that binds the bonds oxygen and CO2

muscle fiber

parallel to one another, tiny tubes, many nucleus, made up of myofibrils


does contractions in muscles

1. calcium ions are released from cell
2. tropomyosin falls off of actim
3. ATP bonds to mysosin head to make it change shape
4. ADP causes it to bond with the actim and pulls it shorter
5. releases ADP

muscle contraction steps


requiring oxygen

electron transport chain

sequence of electron carrier molecules that transfer electrons and release energy during cellular respiration

glucose +O2 --> CO2 + H2O + ATP

cellular respiration equation

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