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Abeka: Grammar and Composition: Unit 13, Pronouns and Their Uses
Terms in this set (36)
a word that takes the place of a noun
the word for which a pronoun stands
1. the SPEAKER (I, me, we, us, my, mine, our, ours),
2. the PERSON SPOKEN TO (you, your, yours),
3. the PERSON SPOKEN ABOUT (he, she, it, they, him, her, them, his, hers, its, their, theirs)
used to ask a QUESTION (who, whom, whose, which, what)
point out the person or thing REFERRED TO (this, that, these, those)
do NOT definitely POINT OUT PERSONS or THINGS and do not usually have antecedents (each, either, neither, one, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, both, few, several, many, some, any, none, all, most)
pronouns combined with -self or -selves (myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, oneself, themselves)
used to introduce dependent clauses (who, whom, whose which, that) (for example: Four of the teens WHO attended the retreat were cousins)
note about pronouns:
many of the words called pronouns here may also function as adjectives (each entry, his coat)
singular indefinite pronouns
each, either, neither, one, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, someone, somebody
plural indefinite pronouns
both, few, several, many
singular or plural indefinite pronouns
some, any, none, all, most
doesn't, isn't, and wasn't are ______
don't aren't, and weren't are _______
the verb always agrees with the _____, not the ______
subject, not the predicate nominative
a pronoun must agree with its antecedent in ____
number. If the antecedent is singular, the pronoun referring to it must also be singular; if the antecedent is plural, so must the pronoun be.
Use singular pronouns to refer to the singular indefinite pronouns: each, either, neither, one, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody
Each of the girls came armed with her own ideas.
Use plural pronouns to refer to plural indefinite pronouns: both, few, several, man.
A few filled their nets with fish.
The indefinite pronouns: some, any, none, all, most, may by referred to by singular or plural pronouns, depending on the sense of the sentence.
Most of the trees have lost their leaves (plural).
Most of the castle retains its splendor (singular).
Pronouns that refer to compound antecedents joined by and are usually plural.
Noah and Kenneth visited their parents during the holidays.
Pronouns that refer to compound antecedents joined by or or nor usually agree with the nearer antecedent.
Neither Mark nor his brothers have received their passports.
Neither Mark nor Tom has received his passport.
A relative pronoun (who, which, that) agrees with its antecedent in number and so determines number in its own clause.
Kayla is the girl who is willing to lend her own books. (The relative pronoun "who" is singular because it refers to "girl," therefore, the singular form "is" and "her" are used to agree with "who")
Those are the girls who are willing to lend their books.
A pronoun agrees with its antecedents in gender.
Antecedents of masculine gender (male sex) are referred to by:
he, him, his
antecedents of feminine gender (female sex) are referred to by :
she, her, hers
antecedents of neutral gender (no sex) are referred to by:
antecedents of common gender (sex not known) are referred to by:
he, him, his
antecedents that are names of animals are generally referred to by neuter pronouns
The tiger paced back and forth in its cage.
avoid ambiguous reference (in pronoun usage)
correct by (1) repeating the antecedent or (2) rewording the sentence
avoid implied reference (meaning the antecedent is not actually stated by must be inferred from other words in the sentence)
He read the Scriptures daily, and this transformed his thinking (vague-refers to verb idea).
He read the Scriptures daily, and the reading transformed his thinking (clear-noun substituted for pronoun).
Avoid the indefinite use of it, you, they
"it" should usually have a definite antecedent
In this book it says that walking is an excellent exercise. (indefinite)
This book says that walking is an excellent exercise (clear0.
The following idiomatic expressions are the use of it without a clear antecedent is correct:
Do not use "you" unless you are speaking specifically to the reader. If you are referring to people in general, use general words such as one, anyone, person, people.
Do not use "they" unless it has a definite plural antecedent.
Pronouns used as subjects must be nominative case pronouns.
Nominative case pronouns: I, he, she, we, they, who, whoever (you and it are both nominative and objective).
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