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Popular Sovereignty

rule by the people

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution


loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country


to leave the union

Manifest Destiny

This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.

Treaty of Paris

Treaty signed in 1783 that officially ended the American Revolution. Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent country.

Indian Removal Act

Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.


a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments

Harriet Tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

Washington's First Cabinet

Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of the Treasury- Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of War- Henry Knox
Attorney General- Edmund Randolph

Washington Precedents

1) He established a cabinet. 2) He stayed in office for only two terms. 3) He remained neutral in terms of international affairs-this did not hold for all presidents, but certainly set an example.

Louisiana Purchase

The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.

War of 1812

War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism

Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

Robert E. Lee

Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force

Jefferson Davis

an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865

Black Codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves

Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction

Rebuild the south politically, economically,and socially

Freedmen's Bureau

1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs

Fort Sumter

Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War

"New" South

The rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longer be dependent on now-outlawed slave labor or predominantly upon the raising of cotton, but rather a South which was also industrialized and part of a modern national economy

Southern secession

Lincoln victory, South Carolina (Dec. 20, 1860), Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas


Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.

John Wilkes Booth

was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.

Military Reconstruction Act of 1867

Divided the Southern States into 5 Military districts under the commands of the Union Army and it also says states must pass the 15th amendment to be readmitted into the Union

Lincoln's inaugural address

stated that, "no state...can lawfully get out of the Union", but pledged there would be no war unless the South started it.


a large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The battle is named after the town on the battlefield. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. Gettysburg is the war's most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and for President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.


the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation

George A. Custer

He was a former general of the Civil War. He was nicknamed the "boy general." During the Sioux War of 1876-1877 he attacked 2,500 Sioux warriors near the Little Big Horn river in Montana and was completely wiped out. He and his 264 men's defeat was partially due to when two supporting colums failed to come to their rescue as reinforcement.


name given to Great Plains farmers because they had to break through so much thick soil, called sod, in order to farm


the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another


a farmhouse, its buildings, and the land it sits on

Open Range

A vast area of grassland owned by the government where ranchers could graze their herds for free


a town that experiences a major increase, or boom, in population due to sudden rapid economic growth

Ghost Town

a deserted town (especially in Western United States)

Cattle Ranching

labor that brought railroads and settlement advanced westward; enlarged urban market; created cow towns; est police forces to maintain order and sin tax


the removal of nonrenewable resources from the land for profit of their own

Barbed wire

seen as a threat to those using Open Range because it blocked off the freedom and safety to drive their cattle.

Homestead Act

Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.

Wounded Knee

In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.

Battle at Little Big Horn

"Custer's Last Stand" A Battle between United States Government and Native Americans. The military wanted to force the native american tribes back into reservations

Long Drive

Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.

Credit Mobilier

Scandalous company created by Union Pacific Railroad insiders, it distributed shares of its stock to Congressmen to avoid detection

Alexander Graham Bell

invented the telephone

Thomas Edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.

Standardized Time Zones

created a standarized time zone for railroads, and created time zones

Economies of Scale

as a company produces larger numbers of a particular product, the cost of each of these products goes down


exclusive control or possession of something

Black List

A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.


a person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business


a contraction of economic activity resulting in a decline of prices


a certificate documenting the shareholder's ownership in the corporation


the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs

Central Pacific Railroad

A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH

Union Pacific Railroad

A railroad that started in Omaha, and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH

Vertical Integration

practice in which a single manufacturer controls all of the steps used to change raw materials into finished products

Horizontal Integration

Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller

Mail Order Catalog

Printed material advertising a wide range of goods that can be purchased by mail

Department Stores

larger stores that are organized into many separate departments and offer many product lines

John D. Rockefeller

formed Standard Oil Trust and made millions while monopolizing the oil industry

Andrew Carnegie

Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"

"Boss" Tweed

William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.

Political Machines

Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.


the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs


the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

Tammany Hall

most notorious political machine; NY city; Marcy Tweed also know as Boss Tweed became head in 1863

Salvation Army/ YMCA

Provided food, housing, and supplies for the poor and unemployed.


a general and progressive increase in prices

Jim Crow Laws

The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965

Homer Plessy

man who challenged the Louisiana law requiring blacks to ride in a separate car on trains


the train company who could send Plessy to the black car because the cars were "separate but equal"

Ida B. Wells

the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.

Poll tax

a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote


the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite

People's Party

formed in 1892 called populist .. farmers alliances in the great agricultural belts of the west and south, they want the goverment to run rail roads


the separation of races

Ellis Island

an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States

Angel Island

The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Between 1910 and 1940 50k Chinese immigrants entered through Angel Island. Questioning and conditions at Angel Island were much harsher than Ellis Island in New York.

New Immigrants

immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europe

Old Immigrants

immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s from Britain, Germany, Ireland, and Scandenavia, or Northern Europe

Mark Twain

United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910)


the policy of perpetuating native cultures (in opposition to acculturation)

Urban Problems

Typhoid; Cholera; Poverty

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