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86 terms

American History Semester Test

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Popular Sovereignty
rule by the people
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Sectionalism
loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country
Secede
to leave the union
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1783 that officially ended the American Revolution. Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent country.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Federalism
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Washington's First Cabinet
Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of the Treasury- Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of War- Henry Knox
Attorney General- Edmund Randolph
Washington Precedents
1) He established a cabinet. 2) He stayed in office for only two terms. 3) He remained neutral in terms of international affairs-this did not hold for all presidents, but certainly set an example.
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Jefferson Davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction
Rebuild the south politically, economically,and socially
Freedmen's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
"New" South
The rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longer be dependent on now-outlawed slave labor or predominantly upon the raising of cotton, but rather a South which was also industrialized and part of a modern national economy
Southern secession
Lincoln victory, South Carolina (Dec. 20, 1860), Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas
KKK
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
Divided the Southern States into 5 Military districts under the commands of the Union Army and it also says states must pass the 15th amendment to be readmitted into the Union
Lincoln's inaugural address
stated that, "no state...can lawfully get out of the Union", but pledged there would be no war unless the South started it.
Gettysburg
a large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The battle is named after the town on the battlefield. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. Gettysburg is the war's most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and for President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
Antietam
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
George A. Custer
He was a former general of the Civil War. He was nicknamed the "boy general." During the Sioux War of 1876-1877 he attacked 2,500 Sioux warriors near the Little Big Horn river in Montana and was completely wiped out. He and his 264 men's defeat was partially due to when two supporting colums failed to come to their rescue as reinforcement.
Sodbusters
name given to Great Plains farmers because they had to break through so much thick soil, called sod, in order to farm
Assimilation
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
Homestead
a farmhouse, its buildings, and the land it sits on
Open Range
A vast area of grassland owned by the government where ranchers could graze their herds for free
Boomtown
a town that experiences a major increase, or boom, in population due to sudden rapid economic growth
Ghost Town
a deserted town (especially in Western United States)
Cattle Ranching
labor that brought railroads and settlement advanced westward; enlarged urban market; created cow towns; est police forces to maintain order and sin tax
Mining
the removal of nonrenewable resources from the land for profit of their own
Barbed wire
seen as a threat to those using Open Range because it blocked off the freedom and safety to drive their cattle.
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Wounded Knee
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Battle at Little Big Horn
"Custer's Last Stand" A Battle between United States Government and Native Americans. The military wanted to force the native american tribes back into reservations
Long Drive
Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.
Credit Mobilier
Scandalous company created by Union Pacific Railroad insiders, it distributed shares of its stock to Congressmen to avoid detection
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Standardized Time Zones
created a standarized time zone for railroads, and created time zones
Economies of Scale
as a company produces larger numbers of a particular product, the cost of each of these products goes down
Monopoly
exclusive control or possession of something
Black List
A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
Entrepreneur
a person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business
Deflation
a contraction of economic activity resulting in a decline of prices
Stock
a certificate documenting the shareholder's ownership in the corporation
Laissez-Faire
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Central Pacific Railroad
A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
Union Pacific Railroad
A railroad that started in Omaha, and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
Vertical Integration
practice in which a single manufacturer controls all of the steps used to change raw materials into finished products
Horizontal Integration
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Mail Order Catalog
Printed material advertising a wide range of goods that can be purchased by mail
Department Stores
larger stores that are organized into many separate departments and offer many product lines
John D. Rockefeller
formed Standard Oil Trust and made millions while monopolizing the oil industry
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
"Boss" Tweed
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Political Machines
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
Individualism
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Realism
the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Tammany Hall
most notorious political machine; NY city; Marcy Tweed also know as Boss Tweed became head in 1863
Salvation Army/ YMCA
Provided food, housing, and supplies for the poor and unemployed.
Inflation
a general and progressive increase in prices
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Homer Plessy
man who challenged the Louisiana law requiring blacks to ride in a separate car on trains
Ferguson
the train company who could send Plessy to the black car because the cars were "separate but equal"
Ida B. Wells
the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.
Poll tax
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
Populism
the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
People's Party
formed in 1892 called populist .. farmers alliances in the great agricultural belts of the west and south, they want the goverment to run rail roads
Segregation
the separation of races
Ellis Island
an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States
Angel Island
The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Between 1910 and 1940 50k Chinese immigrants entered through Angel Island. Questioning and conditions at Angel Island were much harsher than Ellis Island in New York.
New Immigrants
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europe
Old Immigrants
immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s from Britain, Germany, Ireland, and Scandenavia, or Northern Europe
Mark Twain
United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910)
Nativism
the policy of perpetuating native cultures (in opposition to acculturation)
Urban Problems
Typhoid; Cholera; Poverty