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How many rock forming minerals are there?


what determines color of minerals


grain size

coarse grained and fine grained

coarse grained

grains easy to see ex. diorite

fine grained

grains can only be seen with a microscope ex. slate

grain shape

can vary widely ex. rounded in conglomerate and jagged in becca

grain pattern

banded and non banded


grains in layers on bands


grain occur randomly, no pattern ex. quartzite

how rocks form

igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic

extrusive rocks

from lava ex. basalt or igneous rock that forms from lava on earth's surface; cools faster, smaller crystals

intrusive rocks

from magma ex. granite or igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath earth's surface; cools slower, bigger crystals

slow cooling rocks

intrsuive rocks that have large crystals and thus has a chopped up texture ex. porphyry or pegmatite

fast cooling rocks

extrusive rocks that have small crystals and thus a fine grained or glassy texture ex. obsidian or basalt

mineral composition

varies as the composition of the magma and lava vary ex. lots of silica granite(light color) ex. low in silica (dark colored basalt)

uses of hard rocks

hard, dense and durable rocks, used for tools and building materials

pumice uses

used for cleaning

rock-forming minerals

one of the common minerals that make up most of the Earth's crust


a usually light-colored igneous rock that is found in continental rock


a dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust


the particles of minerals or other rocks that give a rock texture


the look and feel of a rock's surface, determined by the size, shape, and pattern of a rock's grains

igneous rock

a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface

sedimentary rock

a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together

metamorphic rock

a type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions


small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or organisms


the destructive process in which water or wind loosens and carries away fragments of rock


the process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind this is carrying it


the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight


the process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass

chemical rock

sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution

organic rock

sedimentary rock that forms from remains of organisms deposited in thick layers

chemical rock

sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution

coral reef

a structure of calcite skeletons built up by coral animals in warm, shallow, ocean water


term used to describe metamorphic rocks that have grains arranged in parallel layers or bands

rock cycle

a series of processes on the surface and inside earth that slowly changes rock from one kind to another

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