47 terms

Population, Birth rates, Death rates, Push factors, Rural and Urban settlment

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Stage 1 (demographic transition model)
High Fluctuatin
Very high fluctuating Birth and Death rates
Stage 2 (demographic transition model)
Early expanding
Birth rate very high
Death rate rapidly falling
Stage 3 (demographic transition model)
Late expanding
Birth rate falling rapidly
Death rate falling more slowly
Stage 4 (demographic transition model)
Low fluctuating
Birth rate falling more slowly
Death rate falling very slowly
Stage 5 (demographic transition model)
Low Fluctuating
Slight fall in Birth rate
Death rate is stable
Name three human factore
Social
Politicial
Economic
How does the demographic transition model relate to populations
Its shows the relationship between BR and DR which shows the populations in a sequence of changes
Natural Decrease
Where death rate is higher than the birth rate
Population Growth
Depends on the balance between Birth Rate and Death Rate
Demographic Transition Model
The study of where and how many people live. There are four stages in the model
Why would countries have a low population density
Caused by physical and human factors
Such as the climate, resources, relief, climate, vegetation, soil, water supply
Birth Rate
The number of births per a thousands people per year in a given country
Why are there more females than males
Women live a healthier lifestyle. They smoke less, eat healthier
Women live over 65 years more often
What is distribution according to population
Distributin shows the way people are spread out across the earth
Population Desity
The number of people live in a square kilometer
Natural Increase
The growth in population resulting from an excess of births over deaths.
BR = higher than deaths
High Birth Rate Reasons
No births control or family planning
Policies of governments
Religious reasons
More kids needed for family bussiness, farms,...
High Death Rate Reasons
Lack of Water
No or Low medical help
Natural disasters, wars, violence
Lack of food
Low Birth Rate Reasons
Use of contraceptives has increased
Less help needed on farms
Feminist movement
Lower infant mortality
Low Death Rate Reasons
Improved sanitation and water supply
Medical help increased
Good nutrition food supplies
Infrastructure improved
Death Rate
The number of deaths per a thousand people
Positive consequences of a large population
More jobs can be done
More docters
Good for economy
Improved technology
Negative consequences of a large population
decrease in natural resources
wars
contagious diseases spread faster
shortage of food + water
less agriculture
Define Life Expectancy
The number of years that the average person born in a country is expected to live
What info does the age-sex pyramid contain
Shows the populatin of a country by age sorted by gender
Name the 7 physical factors
Relief
Climate
Vegetation
Soil
Natural Resources
Water Supply
Natural Routes
Dependency Ratio
People economically unactive/ People economically active
expressed as percentage
Migration
a movement and human terms usually means a change of home
Can be applied to temporary, seasonal and daily changes, permanent
Permanent International Migration
movement of people between countries
Emigrants
people who leave a country
Immigrants
people who arrive in a country
Migration Balance
Difference between the numbers of emigrants and immigrants
Net Migration Loss
A country losing more people though emigration than they gain by immigration
Net Migration Gain
A country receiving more people through immigration than losing through emigration
Volentary Migration
Free movement of migrants looking for an improved quality of life and personal freedom
Forced Migration
When the migrant has no personal choice but has to move due to natural disaster or t economic or social imposition
Refugees
People who have been forced to leave their home country for fear due to religionous, political, environmental,... reasons
They move to other countries hoping to find asylm
Most are illigal immigrants
They livei n extreme poverty, lacking food, shelter, clothing, education, and medical care
Economic migrants
People who move voluntarily from one coutry hoping to find jobs and a higher standard of living, better quality of life
Rural Depopulation
forced to leave the country side
Urbanisation
attraction to new towns and cities
Megacity
Refers to places with a population in excess of 10 million people
Rural-urban migration
The movement from country areas to towns and cities
Rural "push" factors
Why people leave the country side
Urban "pull" factors
Why people move to the city
Rural "pull" factors examples
Lack of employment opportunities
Pressure on the land (too little land to divide among family)
Many families don't own the own land
Overpopulation, resulting from a high birth rates
Starvation, resulting from either too little output for the people of the area, or crop failure.
Limited food production due to overgrazing, or to misuse of the land resulting in soil erosion or exhaustion
Mechanisation has caused a reduction in jobs available on the land together with, in many areas, reduced yields
Extreme physical conditions such a rugged mountains,...
Farming is hard work
Lack of services (schools, hospitals,...)
Lack of investment of money
Urban "Pull" Factors
Why people move to the city
Urban "Pull" Factors Examples
They are looking for better-paid jobs
They expect to be housed more comfortable and to have higher life quality
They have better services (schools, hospitals,...)
They are attracted "bright lights"
There are more reliable sources of food
Religious and political activities can be carried on more safely in larger cities