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39 terms

Middle East Final

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Abraham
Father, made covenant with God promising land through his descendants both to Arabs and Israelites
Moses
led Israelites through Egypt
Mohammed
founder of Islam, messenger and prophet to God
Allah
Muslim word for "God"
Nasser
Second president of Egypt
Sadat
third president of Egypt, assassinated by army officers
Begin
Israeli statesman (born in Russia) who (as prime minister of Israel) negotiated a peace treaty with Anwar Sadat (then the president of Egypt) (1913-1992)
Arafat
leader of PLO, speaker at UN
Rabin
Prime Minister of Israel who signed the Oslo Accords and was later assassinated
Saddam Hussein
Dictator of Iraq - took over power in coup, pushed war against Iran, invaded Kuwait - Persian Gulf War - genocide against Kurds
Osama bin Laden
leader of Al-Qaeda, Muslim extremist terrorist group
found dead last year
President Carter
American President, helped Egypt and Israel make peace
Hamid Karzai
President of Afghanistan, helped overthrow Taliban, sought international aid for Afghanistan.
Intifada
an uprising of young Palestinians against Israeli occupation
Mandate
a document giving an official instruction or command
Partition
the act of dividing or partitioning (a country or territory)
Diaspora
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel
Zionism
a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine
Balfour Declaration
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
McMahan Correspondence
letters promising Palestine to Arabs
Oil embargo
set up by Egypt against Israel
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
problems: oil used as a weapon to influence other countries
Hamas
a militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon, (West Bank)
Hezbollah
a Shiite terrorist organization with strong ties to Iran
President Clinton
42nd President of the United States, present at Camp David Accords (Israel & Egypt)
1948
War of Independence/ The Catastrophe
final pullout of British troops in Palestine, Israel a state
5 surrounding Arab countries attack Israel.
Israel=78% land, Palestinians issued right of return
1956
Suez Crisis
Israel invades Egypt after Israeli shipping block, seized GAza and control of Gulf of Aqaba
after pressure from US and UN, retreated
1967
6-Day War
Israel Victory
Israel and Syria, Russia told Syria Israel was planning an attack
Israel triples land, 500,000 Palestinians displaced
1973
Yom Kippur War
Arab countries attack on holiest day in the Israeli calender, used oil embargo as a weapon to punish countries who supported Israel
Camp David Accords
peace treaty between Israel and Egypt (Sadat and Begin)
Oslo Accords
an attempt to resolve the ongoing Palestinian-Israeli conflict. the first direct, face-to-face agreement between the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization. attended by Clinton, Arafat, and Rabin
1991 Gulf War
Iraq invades Kuwait, "historically part of Iraq", for access to oil and Persian Gulf
ILLEGAL, threat to Us ally Saudi-Arabia and oil resources, US forms coalition to drive Iraq out
Kuwait freed
2002 Gulf War
US invades Iraq with intelligence of Sadam-Hussein's whereabouts & of Iraq's WMDs
Iraq refuses to grant entrance, war begun
RECENTLY ended
Quran
Islamic Holy Book
Torah
Jewish Holy Book
Five Pillars of Islam
true Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
Ramadan
fasting time of the year for Muslims
Mecca
city to which Muslims pilgrimage
Judea
original home of the Israelites