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Father, made covenant with God promising land through his descendants both to Arabs and Israelites


led Israelites through Egypt


founder of Islam, messenger and prophet to God


Muslim word for "God"


Second president of Egypt


third president of Egypt, assassinated by army officers


Israeli statesman (born in Russia) who (as prime minister of Israel) negotiated a peace treaty with Anwar Sadat (then the president of Egypt) (1913-1992)


leader of PLO, speaker at UN


Prime Minister of Israel who signed the Oslo Accords and was later assassinated

Saddam Hussein

Dictator of Iraq - took over power in coup, pushed war against Iran, invaded Kuwait - Persian Gulf War - genocide against Kurds

Osama bin Laden

leader of Al-Qaeda, Muslim extremist terrorist group
found dead last year

President Carter

American President, helped Egypt and Israel make peace

Hamid Karzai

President of Afghanistan, helped overthrow Taliban, sought international aid for Afghanistan.


an uprising of young Palestinians against Israeli occupation


a document giving an official instruction or command


the act of dividing or partitioning (a country or territory)


the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel


a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine

Balfour Declaration

British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI

McMahan Correspondence

letters promising Palestine to Arabs

Oil embargo

set up by Egypt against Israel


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
problems: oil used as a weapon to influence other countries


a militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon, (West Bank)


a Shiite terrorist organization with strong ties to Iran

President Clinton

42nd President of the United States, present at Camp David Accords (Israel & Egypt)


War of Independence/ The Catastrophe
final pullout of British troops in Palestine, Israel a state
5 surrounding Arab countries attack Israel.
Israel=78% land, Palestinians issued right of return


Suez Crisis
Israel invades Egypt after Israeli shipping block, seized GAza and control of Gulf of Aqaba
after pressure from US and UN, retreated


6-Day War
Israel Victory
Israel and Syria, Russia told Syria Israel was planning an attack
Israel triples land, 500,000 Palestinians displaced


Yom Kippur War
Arab countries attack on holiest day in the Israeli calender, used oil embargo as a weapon to punish countries who supported Israel

Camp David Accords

peace treaty between Israel and Egypt (Sadat and Begin)

Oslo Accords

an attempt to resolve the ongoing Palestinian-Israeli conflict. the first direct, face-to-face agreement between the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization. attended by Clinton, Arafat, and Rabin

1991 Gulf War

Iraq invades Kuwait, "historically part of Iraq", for access to oil and Persian Gulf
ILLEGAL, threat to Us ally Saudi-Arabia and oil resources, US forms coalition to drive Iraq out
Kuwait freed

2002 Gulf War

US invades Iraq with intelligence of Sadam-Hussein's whereabouts & of Iraq's WMDs
Iraq refuses to grant entrance, war begun


Islamic Holy Book


Jewish Holy Book

Five Pillars of Islam

true Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime


fasting time of the year for Muslims


city to which Muslims pilgrimage


original home of the Israelites

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