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13 terms

darwin,, evolution and fossils

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evolution
the process of change over time from simple to more complex
fossils
preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms
tendency toward perfection
Lamarck proposed that all organisms have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection. As a result, they are continually changing and acquiring features that help them live more successfully in their environments.
artificial selection
nature provides the variations and humans select those they find useful
natural variation
differences among individuals of a species; results from mutation and sexual reproduction
common ancestor
idea that we are all related
adaptation
any characteristics that give an advantage for survival
descent of modification
small changes are passed onto generations over long period time
relative dating
helps to determine whether a fossil is older or younger than others by placing rock layers and their fossils in a temporal sequence
index fossils
distinctive fossils used to establish and compare the relative ages of rock layers and fossils they contain
half life
time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
carbon 14
elements used for younger than 60,000
potassium 40 uranium 238 rubidium 87
older than 100,000