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the first stage of cellulae respiration, glycolysis is an anaerobic process


during the light dependant reactions of photosynthesis, light energy is used to split wwater molecules generating protons and oxygen molecules


an ionic bond is formed when 2 atoms share electrons


polyploidy is more common in plants then animals


a chemical reaction is the process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substances


organisms such as yeast can produce through mitotic division. during this type of reproduction nondisjunction is possible


once a person is born, the phenotype is set in place and remains stable throughout the lifetime


during meiosis, chromosome number is reduced through 3 rounds of cell division


homologous chromosomes are 2 chromosomes with identical DNA sequences


when an endothermic chemical reaction takes place, heat is released into the environment


an element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means


a catalyst increases the rate of reaction by increasing the net energy change of the reaction


it is possible to create a karyotype of a fetus


an inference comes before an observation


a woman with an X-linked dominant disorder will hae children who have a 50% chance to be affected by the trait also, regardless of their gender


alcohol fermentation is similar to lactic-acid fermentation in that NADH donates electron during this reaction and NAD+ is regenerated


the central dogma means that environmental factors have no influence on the transcription and translation of genes


embryonic stem cells are found in various tissues in the body and might be used to maintain and repair the same kind of tissue in wich they are found


the cell cycle is divided into interphase and mitosis


a prokaryote that grows and reproduces without oxygen is called aerobic


diffusion over large distances is slow and inefficient because it relies on random movement of molecules and ions


what is the relationship between individual I-1 and individual III-2 in figure 11-1

grandmother and grandson

for the trait being followed in teh pedigree, individuals II-1 and II-4 in figure 11-1 can be classified as


what type if inheritance does the trait represented by the shaded symbols in figure 11-1 illistrate


which event during meiosis leads to a reduction in chromosome number from 2n to n?

homologous chromosomes travel to opposite sides of the cell

what phenotype is depicted in figure 11-5

B blood type

what results from the removal of phosphate group from ATP

release of energy

which best describes the difference between an observation and an inference

you can record an observation; an inference id an idea

amino acids are the building blocks of which macromolecule


capillary action is the result of adhesion which aspect of water is responsible for this

hydrogen bonds between water and another substance

which of the following are produced by reactions that take place in the thylakoids and are consumed by reactions in the stroma


what property is responsible for the fact that water and oil do not mix


what is the major difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport

active transport requires energy to move things against the flow

which statement is a fundamental principle of the cell theory

living organisms are composed of cells

which is present only in eukaryotic cells


chloroplasts are organelles that convert light energy to sugars. These organelles are found only in plants. Which organelle are found only in animals


what is the cycle called shown in figure 8-3

calvin cycle

what did scientists discover using the earliest microscopes

bacteria or tiny organisms

one isotope of nitrogen differs from another in which way

it could have more nuetrons than the other

a stem cell has potential medical use because it

you can use the to replace bad cells in the body, unspecialized cells

if 2 heterozygous individuals are crossed, what percent of their offspring are also expected to be heterzygous


which is an inference

after watching a plant for a week, you determine it needs more sunlight

Both Schwann and Virchow developed important theories about cells in the mid 1800s. which best explains the reason these theories were made within a few years of each other

new microscopes provided better viewing of cells

a hydrogen bond can form between a hydrogen atom and one molecule and which atom of another molecule?

flourine, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms

what is the role of cyclin- dependant kinases in the cell cycle?

start various activities that takeplace like proteins, nuclear division, and DNA replication

which is the best description of the events that take place during anaphase II

the sister chromatids are seperated and pulled to opposite sides of the cell

a plant cell is plaed in a hypertonic solution. what will happen to the plant cell?

it will shrivel up

which of the following doesnt occur as a cell gows larger and larger in size

ratio of the surface area to volume increases

according to the pedigree in figure 11-2, how many of the offspring in the III generation show the normal trait?


suppose the animal is heterozygous AaBbCc and the traits are not linked, when meiosis occurs, what is the total number of possible combinations of gametes that can be made for the traits


what is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration

to break down organic molecules, the last electron acceptor

a man with a certain syndrome marries a woman who is normal for the trait they have 6 children three girls, and three boys. all the girls have the samw syndrome as the father whereas none of the boys is affected. which type of heredity is NOT possible here?


which statement is true about bacterial cells?

the cells have no nucleus

at what point in the process of diffusion is dynamic equilibrium reached?

when there is continuous movement but no change

which is the best description of activation energy

heat added to initiate a reaction

which organelle convert sugars into energy


which situation is the phe of F2 offspring expected to follow the 9:3:3:1

a dihybrid cross for 2 unlinked traits

a cell has 12 chromosomes. how many will each daughter cell have?


what substance has at least one ionic bond


living things do all of the following besides:

pass an identical DNA code to their offspring

which of the following could not only be a result of nondisjunction during meiosis of sperm formation and not egg foormation


the typical growth period of cell occurs during which stage of the cell cycle

interphase- G1

which element is found in proteins but NOT carbohydrates or lipids


A single covalent bond forms when two atoms do which of these?

when they share two electrons

which stage meiosis is responsible for the law of independent assortment

metaphase I

what is cancer cause by what happening to the DNa


during photosynthesis light energy is converted to the energy in chemical bonds, what also happens according to the predictions of the second law of thermodynamics

heat is being released

a cross between a white rooster and a black hen results in 100% blue andalusian offspring. when two of these blue offspring are mated, the probable phenotypic seen in their offspring would be

1:2:1 25% black 50% blue 25% white

DNA replication occurs during what stage of the cell cycle


which of the following is an observation

you record the air temperature every day for a week

a man heterozygous for blood type A marrries a woman heterozygous for blood type B the chance that their first child will have O type blood is




biology means

study of life

cancer cells can reproduce rapidly because

they spend less time in Interphase

a spontaneous chemical occurs more rapidly when the reactants are held at 35 degrees C rather than 25 degrees C. why would ths be the case

the activation energy is lower

what substance on the plasma membrane helps identify chemical signs from outsid the cell

carbohydrate chains

what does a thylakoid do

thylakoid membranes have a large surface area that provides the space needed to hold large nubers of electron transporting molecules

which of the following correctly sequences the steps of the scientific method

observe, question, make a testable explanation, experiment, collect and analyze data, state findings

an atom of boron has five electrons. its second energy level has

3 electrons

if i take a #3 acid and equal strength base, i will get a solution of what pH value


what happens to the chromosomes in telophase

the relax

because it is often difficult to gather numerical data, ______________ information is collected


mitosis if the division of

the nucleus

elements are pure substances made up of only one kind of


a testable hypothesis that can form the basis for

an experiment

a ___________ increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy


according to the law of __________ two alleles for each trait seperate during meiois, and during fertilization, the two alleles unite


the term __________ refers to the occurence of one or more sets of extra chromosomes in an organism


the movement of protons during the process of ATP production is called


molecules that have an unequal distribution of charges are _____ molecules


cytokinesis is the division of


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