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during the light dependant reactions of photosynthesis, light energy is used to split wwater molecules generating protons and oxygen molecules
a chemical reaction is the process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substances
organisms such as yeast can produce through mitotic division. during this type of reproduction nondisjunction is possible
once a person is born, the phenotype is set in place and remains stable throughout the lifetime
an element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means
a woman with an X-linked dominant disorder will hae children who have a 50% chance to be affected by the trait also, regardless of their gender
alcohol fermentation is similar to lactic-acid fermentation in that NADH donates electron during this reaction and NAD+ is regenerated
the central dogma means that environmental factors have no influence on the transcription and translation of genes
embryonic stem cells are found in various tissues in the body and might be used to maintain and repair the same kind of tissue in wich they are found
diffusion over large distances is slow and inefficient because it relies on random movement of molecules and ions
what is the relationship between individual I-1 and individual III-2 in figure 11-1
grandmother and grandson
for the trait being followed in teh pedigree, individuals II-1 and II-4 in figure 11-1 can be classified as
what type if inheritance does the trait represented by the shaded symbols in figure 11-1 illistrate
which event during meiosis leads to a reduction in chromosome number from 2n to n?
homologous chromosomes travel to opposite sides of the cell
which best describes the difference between an observation and an inference
you can record an observation; an inference id an idea
capillary action is the result of adhesion which aspect of water is responsible for this
hydrogen bonds between water and another substance
which of the following are produced by reactions that take place in the thylakoids and are consumed by reactions in the stroma
ATP and NADPH
what is the major difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport
active transport requires energy to move things against the flow
which statement is a fundamental principle of the cell theory
living organisms are composed of cells
chloroplasts are organelles that convert light energy to sugars. These organelles are found only in plants. Which organelle are found only in animals
one isotope of nitrogen differs from another in which way
it could have more nuetrons than the other
a stem cell has potential medical use because it
you can use the to replace bad cells in the body, unspecialized cells
if 2 heterozygous individuals are crossed, what percent of their offspring are also expected to be heterzygous
Both Schwann and Virchow developed important theories about cells in the mid 1800s. which best explains the reason these theories were made within a few years of each other
new microscopes provided better viewing of cells
a hydrogen bond can form between a hydrogen atom and one molecule and which atom of another molecule?
flourine, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms
what is the role of cyclin- dependant kinases in the cell cycle?
start various activities that takeplace like proteins, nuclear division, and DNA replication
which is the best description of the events that take place during anaphase II
the sister chromatids are seperated and pulled to opposite sides of the cell
a plant cell is plaed in a hypertonic solution. what will happen to the plant cell?
it will shrivel up
which of the following doesnt occur as a cell gows larger and larger in size
ratio of the surface area to volume increases
according to the pedigree in figure 11-2, how many of the offspring in the III generation show the normal trait?
suppose the animal is heterozygous AaBbCc and the traits are not linked, when meiosis occurs, what is the total number of possible combinations of gametes that can be made for the traits
what is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration
to break down organic molecules, the last electron acceptor
a man with a certain syndrome marries a woman who is normal for the trait they have 6 children three girls, and three boys. all the girls have the samw syndrome as the father whereas none of the boys is affected. which type of heredity is NOT possible here?
at what point in the process of diffusion is dynamic equilibrium reached?
when there is continuous movement but no change
which situation is the phe of F2 offspring expected to follow the 9:3:3:1
a dihybrid cross for 2 unlinked traits
which of the following could not only be a result of nondisjunction during meiosis of sperm formation and not egg foormation
during photosynthesis light energy is converted to the energy in chemical bonds, what also happens according to the predictions of the second law of thermodynamics
heat is being released
a cross between a white rooster and a black hen results in 100% blue andalusian offspring. when two of these blue offspring are mated, the probable phenotypic seen in their offspring would be
1:2:1 25% black 50% blue 25% white
a man heterozygous for blood type A marrries a woman heterozygous for blood type B the chance that their first child will have O type blood is
a spontaneous chemical occurs more rapidly when the reactants are held at 35 degrees C rather than 25 degrees C. why would ths be the case
the activation energy is lower
what substance on the plasma membrane helps identify chemical signs from outsid the cell
what does a thylakoid do
thylakoid membranes have a large surface area that provides the space needed to hold large nubers of electron transporting molecules
which of the following correctly sequences the steps of the scientific method
observe, question, make a testable explanation, experiment, collect and analyze data, state findings
because it is often difficult to gather numerical data, ______________ information is collected
according to the law of __________ two alleles for each trait seperate during meiois, and during fertilization, the two alleles unite
the term __________ refers to the occurence of one or more sets of extra chromosomes in an organism
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