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AP U.S. Government Chapter 3 & 4 Key Terms
Terms in this set (95)
Declaration of Independence
expresses simply, clearly, and rationally the many arguments for separation from Great Britain.
Social contract theory
states that the people agree to establish rulers for certain purposes but they have the right to resist or remove rulers who violate those purposes
a government without a monarch; government based on the consent of the governed, whose power is exercised by representatives who are responsible to them
a loose association of independent states that agree to cooperate on specified matters; the states retain their sovereignty (each has supreme power within its borders); central government is weak and can only coordinate, not control
Articles of Confederation
the compact among the 13 original colonies that established the first government of the United States
New Jersey Plan
1. single-chamber legislature has the power to raise revenue and regulate commerce
2. states have equal representation in the legislature and choose its members
3. multiperson executive be elected by the legislature, with powers similar to those proposed under the Virginia Plan but without the right to veto legislation
4. supreme tribunal be created, with a limited jurisdiction
5. the acts of the legislature be binding on the states (be regarded as "the supreme law of the respective states")
Representation in the House of Representatives would be apportioned according to the population of each state; 56 members; revenue raising acts would originate in the House; the states would be represented equally in the Senate (2 senators each); senators selected by their state legislatures
a form of government in which power resides in the people and is exercised by their elected representatives.
the division of power between central government and regional governments; two or more governments exercise power and authority over the same people and the same territory
Separation of powers
the assignment of the lawmaking, law enforcing, and law interpreting function of government to independent legislative, executive, and judicial branches
Checks and balances
a means of giving each branch of government some scrutiny of and control over the other branches; meant to prevent the exclusive exercise of certain powers by any one of the three branches
means that Congress can exercise only the powers that the Constitution assigns to it
Necessary and proper clause
gives Congress the means to execute the enumerate powers ("make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing powers")
powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerate powers (power to levy and collect taxes, power to coin money and regulate its value, etc.)
the authority to invalidate congressional or presidential actions because they violate the Constitution
asserts that when the Constitution, national laws, and treaties conflict with state or local laws, the first three take precedence over the last two
quality of being supreme in power or authority, of national and state governments
acknowledges the increasing overlap between state and national functions and rejects the idea of separate spheres, or layers, for the states and the national government
money paid by one level of government to another level of government to be spent for a given purpose
target specific purposes, restrictions on their use typically leave the recipient government relatively little formal discretion
distributed according to specific rules that define who is eligible for the grant and how much each eligible applicant will receive
awarded through a competitive application process
allow recipient governments considerable freedom to decide how to spend the money (broad, general purposes)
the power of Congress to enact laws by which the national government assumes complete or partial responsibility for a state government function
a requirement that a state undertake an activity or provide a service, in keeping with minimum national standards
forbids state governments from exercising a certain power (ex. prohibiting states from dumping sewage into the ocean)
strong national government that exerts tight control of states through mandates, typically without financial resources; focus on the national government' strong voice in shaping what states do (public education, environment, etc.)
the governments of cities and towns
administer boundaries for municipalities; tend to have little or no legislative power; serve as administrative units, performing the specific duties assigned to them under state law
responsible for administering local elementary and secondary educational programs
government units created to perform particular functions
the right to enact and enforce legislation in certain administrative areas; gives cities a measure of self-government and freedom of action
national government monopolizes constitutional authority
lower level units function under the administration of the national government
not a separate level of government; established by the state and do not exercise independent, constitutional authority
simplest possible arrangement; leaves the states and the national gov't presiding over mutually exclusive "spheres of sovereignty"
recognizes that the national and state gov'ts jointly supply services to the citizenry; cooperation because there is no other choice
Interstate Commerce Act 1887
Regulation of railroads as farmers protested rate discrimination and high charges; anti monopoly laws
An individual who opposed the ratification of the new Constitution in 1787; opposed to a strong central government.
Consent of the governed
Consent of the Governed agreement by the people of a nation to subject themselves to the authority to a government. Natural rights philosophers, such as John Locke, believe that any legitimate government must draw its authority from the consent of the governed.
Leaders were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison; favored state banks and little industry; weak central government; strict interpretation of Constitution
Supreme law of the land; determines the fundamental political principles of the government
Federalist Paper 10
james madison argues for the adoption of the constitution, argues that a strong central government can guard against the "factionalism" of smaller republics, a broad, strong national government that should remain non-partisan. and madison also includes the difference between a democracy and republic
Federalist Paper 51
Madison wrote in 1788, agreed that three separate, independent branches would have the same amount of power (except the legislative branch would be bigger). Government should control people, but also itsself, and individual rights should be protected, also stated that ideal society wouldn't need government and people have ultimate power
Federalist Paper 39
The government needs to a republican form of democracy and power needs to derive from the people
Federalist Paper 78
Basis for the courts power of judicial review
Federal Judges have a lifetime term, it is the "weakest" and "least dangerous" branch of government, and because of this the branch must be able to defend against the other two stronger branches.
A government in which everyone, including those in authority, must obey the laws. This is common in Western culture. The U.S. constitution is a document that is an example of limiting the power of government.
life (health and safety), liberty (freedom to make our own decisions/live as we please), and property (work and gain land, houses, money, etc.)
presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. The Virginia Plan favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In opposition, the small states proposed the New Jersey Plan. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Three fifths compromise
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
life, liberty, pursuit of happiness
Framers didn't want to make it too easy for Americans to change the Constitution.
An amendment may be proposed by 2/3 of both the House and the Senate.
An amendment may be approved by the legislatures of 3/4 of the states.
freedom of religion, speech, and the press; right of petition and assembly
right to bear arms
gov't can not force people to quarter troops in their homes
protects against unreasonable search and seizure
Rights of people accused of crimes
Right to trial by jury in criminal cases
Right to trial b jury in civil cases
forbids excessive bail and cruel or unusual punishment
people's rights are not limited to those listed in the Constitution
states or people have all powers not denied or given to federal government by the Constitution
Advice and consent
The power of the Senate to consult and approve the presidents treaties and appointment
two-chamber legislature, made up of the House of Representatives and the US Senate
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments of the Constitution
groups acting in pursuit of an interest (can be a subgroup) that often precede formation of political parties
electoral college the body of elector chosen from each state to elect the president and vice president of the U.S.
A means of governance by the people THROUGH elected representatives. "Representative democracy"
Interstate Commerce Act
-established the federal government's right to oversee railroad activities
-required railroads to public their rate schedules and file them with the government
structure of government in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
Marbury v. Madison
1803: establishes judicial review as a check on legislative power. Marshall: If the constitution is the supreme law of the land, something must ensure laws are in accordance with it. Judgement against commission.
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
Madison, Hamilton, Jay
Writ of Habeas corpus
Court orders in which a judge requires authorities to prove that a prisoner is being held lawfully and that allows the prisoner to be freed if the judge is not persuaded by the government's case; prisoners have a right to know what charges are being made against them
Categorical grant in aid
intergovernmental grants with specific instructions to state and local officials on how the money could be spent
Concurrent Powers powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
Confederal system of government
a structure of government in which several independent sovereign governments agree to cooperate on specified governmental matters while retaining sovereignty over all governmental matters within their jurisdiction
The effort to transfer responsibility for many public programs and services from the federal government to the states
The amount of a good people are allowed to use is directly limited by the government
Division of power
basic principle of federalism; the constitutional provisions by which governmental powers are divided on a geographic basis
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
those delegated powers of the National Government that are spelled out, expressly, in the Constitution; also called the "enumerated powers"
Roosevelt's plan for getting out of the Depression (relief, recovery, and reform)
an attempt in the 70's and 80's to restore some powers to the states from the Government
donations to the presidential campaign from the federal government that are determined by the amount of private funds a qualifying candidate raises
the power reserved to the government to regulate the health, safety and morals of its citizens
Began under Richard Nixon and known as the new federalism; this approach stressed the downsizing of the federal government and more reliance on revenue sharing and grants
A concept of federalism where funding is appropriated by the federal government to the states with specific conditions attached. The legislation can be in the form of mandates.
Those regulations passed by Congress or issued by regulatory agencies to the states with federal funds to support them
Federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states. Adopted in 1972 with the passage of the State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act. Distributed $6 billion per year in federal funds to states and localities.
Those regulations passed by Congress or issued by regulatory agencies to the states without federal funds to support them.
Which is not an example of an event causing a "rally round the flag" event?
The U.S. Constitution has been called a "bundle of compromises". List and explain at least four compromises.
The constitutionals, laws, and policies of the 50 states cannot contradict the United States Constitution.
Who did Lewinsky first tell about her alleged relationship with Bill Clinton?
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