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4 parts of the Respiratory Division of the lungs
Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Alveolar sacs, Alveoli
cell types in ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Ciliated columnar cells, Mucous goblet cells, Brush cells, Basal cells, Small granule cell
Small granule cells of the typical respiratory epithelium function as
Local endocrine cells - secreting hormones in a paracrine fashion
Brush cells function as
Sensory receptors because afferent nerve fibers contact their basal surfaces
This type of epithelium lines some portions of the conducting division from nasal cavity to larynx
Stratified squamous moist epithelium
The significance of stratified squamous moist epithelium in portions of the conducting system
Protection against air flow due to smoother surface
Squamous metaplasia is the term for
Squamification (a word?) of the ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Occurs in smokers
3 types of cells in olfactory epithelium
Olfactory cells (bipolar neurons), Supporting cells (ciliated), basal cells
The lamina propria of the nasal cavity contains
Rich capillary network, large venous plexuses (swell bodies), glands (2 types)
The purpose of the glands in the nasal cavity is to
break down substances for better activation of olfactory neurons
The vestibule of the nasal cavity is lined with (transition from...to...)
Keratinized epithelium transitioning to typical respiratory epithelium
Sebaceous and sweat glands are located in (this part of the Respiratory system)
the first part of the nasal cavity's vestibule
What epithelium covers the larynx?
It depends on the location within: true vocal cords and epiglottis are covered by stratified squamous epithelium, but typical respiratory epithelium covers the fast vocal cords and the remainder of the larynx
Intrinsic muscles of the larynx have this purpose
Help to change the diameter of the larynx, which is narrowed for increased velocity when coughing
Epithelium of alveolar ducts
Simple squamous epithelium, mostly Type I alveolar cells, occasional type II alveolar cells
Surfactant of lungs has these 2 fluid layers
Aqueous proteinaceous hypophase covered by phospholipid monolayer
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is...
Associated with premature birth. Leading cause of death in premies, Alveoli are collapsed due to deficiency of surfactant
The interalveolar septa contain...
capillaries, LCT with elastic, reticular and collagen fibers, fibroblasts and various leukocytes including Macrophages
When hemoglobin breaks down and alveolar macrophages are filled with hemosiderin, the macrophages are called
heart failure cells
The blood air barrier has these three components
Alveolar type I cells, fused (tight junctions) basal lamina of alveolar and endothelial cells, endothelial cells
Purpose of alveolar pores/pores of Kuhn
equalize pressure between neighboring alveoli, collateral air circulation when bronchiole obstructed, (means for spread of infections)
2 vascular supplies of the lungs
one is nutritional and one for gas exchange...these combine at deep levels
Three types of neural innervation to respiratory system
Parasympathetic (Vagus nerve), Sympathetic and Sensory
simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) and thin layer of CT with lots of capillaries and lymph vessels
Pulmonary veins are found in the
parynchema, away from the airways, venules enter the interlobular septum and follow bronchial tree to the hilum
The order in which pulmonary defense mechanisms kick in
Vibrassae in nasal passages; Mucociliary transport in trachea, bronchioles; Alveolar macrophages, Lymphoid tissue
Without functioning cilia,...
poor clearing of lungs, congestion, pooling of mucous, lowered gas exchange
A phagolysosome is the result of
when a cell can't break down material and it is held in the lysosome of the macrophage
what helps to keep food and fluid out larynx
laryngeal cartilages with some hyaline and some elastic
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