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MicroAnatomy: Respiratory System

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4 parts of the Respiratory Division of the lungs
Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Alveolar sacs, Alveoli
The Air conduction division of the lungs ends at the level of the
Terminal bronchioles.
The core of cilia is composed of
Microtubules
cell types in ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Ciliated columnar cells, Mucous goblet cells, Brush cells, Basal cells, Small granule cell
Small granule cells of the typical respiratory epithelium function as
Local endocrine cells - secreting hormones in a paracrine fashion
Brush cells have numerous __ on their apical surfaces
Microvilli
Brush cells function as
Sensory receptors because afferent nerve fibers contact their basal surfaces
This type of epithelium lines some portions of the conducting division from nasal cavity to larynx
Stratified squamous moist epithelium
The significance of stratified squamous moist epithelium in portions of the conducting system
Protection against air flow due to smoother surface
Smooth muscle is more prominent in what part of the lungs?
End of bronchioles
Squamous metaplasia is the term for
Squamification (a word?) of the ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Occurs in smokers
This change in epithelial type is reversable
Squamous epithelium
3 types of cells in olfactory epithelium
Olfactory cells (bipolar neurons), Supporting cells (ciliated), basal cells
Olfactory cells are replaced
throughout life
The lamina propria of the nasal cavity contains
Rich capillary network, large venous plexuses (swell bodies), glands (2 types)
Two types of glands in the nasal cavity lamina propria
Seromucous, Serous glands (Bowman's glands)
The purpose of the glands in the nasal cavity is to
break down substances for better activation of olfactory neurons
Nasopharynx is lined by
Typical respiratory epithelium
The vestibule of the nasal cavity is lined with (transition from...to...)
Keratinized epithelium transitioning to typical respiratory epithelium
Vibrassae are located in
the nasal vestibule
Sebaceous and sweat glands are located in (this part of the Respiratory system)
the first part of the nasal cavity's vestibule
3 conchae (turbinate bones) are located in
Each of the 2 nasal fossae
The larynx connects...
the pharynx to the trachea
Vocal cords are located in the
larynx
Upper vocal cords are known as the
false vocal cords
The lower vocal cords are known as the
true vocal cords
What epithelium covers the true vocal cords?
Moist squamous epithelium
What epithelium covers the larynx?
It depends on the location within: true vocal cords and epiglottis are covered by stratified squamous epithelium, but typical respiratory epithelium covers the fast vocal cords and the remainder of the larynx
Purpose of the epiglottis
more turbulance
Intrinsic muscles of the larynx have this purpose
Help to change the diameter of the larynx, which is narrowed for increased velocity when coughing
The first signs of alveoli/gas exchange are in this part of the lungs
the respiratory bronchioles
Cells of the respiratory bronchioles
Few ciliated cells, some Clara cells
Epithelium of alveolar ducts
Simple squamous epithelium, mostly Type I alveolar cells, occasional type II alveolar cells
In the alveolar ducts, smooth muscle is located only
around the rim of the alveoli
Primary CT support of alveolar sacs
elastic and reticular fibers
Surfactant of lungs has these 2 fluid layers
Aqueous proteinaceous hypophase covered by phospholipid monolayer
Without surfactant, alveoli would
collapse
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is...
Associated with premature birth. Leading cause of death in premies, Alveoli are collapsed due to deficiency of surfactant
The interalveolar septa contain...
capillaries, LCT with elastic, reticular and collagen fibers, fibroblasts and various leukocytes including Macrophages
When hemoglobin breaks down and alveolar macrophages are filled with hemosiderin, the macrophages are called
heart failure cells
The richest capillary network in the body is found in the
interalveolar septum
Macrophage function in the lungs is impaired by
Smoking, Viral infections, Ethanol ingestion
The blood air barrier has these three components
Alveolar type I cells, fused (tight junctions) basal lamina of alveolar and endothelial cells, endothelial cells
Alveolar pores are a.k.a.
pores of Kuhn
Purpose of alveolar pores/pores of Kuhn
equalize pressure between neighboring alveoli, collateral air circulation when bronchiole obstructed, (means for spread of infections)
2 vascular supplies of the lungs
one is nutritional and one for gas exchange...these combine at deep levels
Characteristic of pulmonary arteries:
thin walls due to low pressure
Three types of neural innervation to respiratory system
Parasympathetic (Vagus nerve), Sympathetic and Sensory
Sympathetic system functions to __ bronchii and bronchioles
Dilate
Parasympathetic system functions to __ bronchi and bronchioles
Constrict
Bronchial vessels supply
nutrients to the larger airways
Bronchial vessels branch from the
aorta
Pleural fibers are...
collagen and elastic fibers
Fluid between the pleura is like
pulmonary surfactant
Pleura tissue
simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) and thin layer of CT with lots of capillaries and lymph vessels
Pulmonary veins are found in the
parynchema, away from the airways, venules enter the interlobular septum and follow bronchial tree to the hilum
The order in which pulmonary defense mechanisms kick in
Vibrassae in nasal passages; Mucociliary transport in trachea, bronchioles; Alveolar macrophages, Lymphoid tissue
Non-motile cilia can be a result of
Kartagener syndrome (dynein deficiency)
Without functioning cilia,...
poor clearing of lungs, congestion, pooling of mucous, lowered gas exchange
Pulmonary emboli obstruct...
pulmonary artery or branch...no blood flows to alveoli
Lysosomes in phagosomes are called
phagolysosomes
A phagolysosome is the result of
when a cell can't break down material and it is held in the lysosome of the macrophage
Basal cells are
undifferentiated short cells. They Don't touch the lumen surface
Bowman's glands are located...
under the olfactory epithelium
what helps to keep food and fluid out larynx
laryngeal cartilages with some hyaline and some elastic
Seromucous glands of the trachea are found mostly
between the cartilagenous rings
Trachealis muscle is...
the smooth muscle at the back of the cartilage rings of the trachea.
Contraction of what muscle in the lungs is part of the cough reflex
trachealis
ligaments of the trachea connecting the cartilage rings are predominately
Fibroelastic ligaments
Lymphocytes and lymphatic nodules are located particularly
at the branching points of the bronchi
Clara cells are found where?
Terminal bronchioles.
Neuroepithelial bodies are
groups of cells with secretory granules associated with cholinergic nerve terminals. (Believed to be chemoreceptors, similar to brush cells). Found in normal bronchial epithelium