Early River Valley Civilizations

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Terms in this set (...)

Fertile Crescent
rich land which provided great farming
Mesopotamia
"Land between the rivers" (Euphrates and Tigris)
Dynasty
series of rulers from a single family; resulted in full-time military rulers
City-state
city and surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
Cultural Diffusion
new product or idea spreads from one culture to another
Polytheism
belief in more than one god
Sargon of Akkad - How did he form his empire?
By bringing independent nation and peoples under one ruler.
Sargon of Akkad - Why was it significant?
It united northern/southern Mesopotamia.
Empire
bringing independent nation and peoples under one ruler
Why were Egyptian farmers more fortunate than Mesopotamian farmers?
The Nile River had predictable flooding in July, which made rich soil in October.
What type of natural barrier protected Egypt?
Deserts
Narmer
United the upper and lower Egypt
Hammurabi
leader during Babylonian peak
According to the code, who was responsible for what happened in society?
The government
Pharaohs
Egyptian god-kings; political and military leader
Theocracy
government in which rule is based on a religious authority
What did the pyramids show about Egypt?
great civilization strength
Mummification
embalming and drying the corpse; reserved for elite
Hieroglyphics
ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures represented ideas and sounds
Pictographs
early writing
Papyrus
tall reed that grows in the marsh; used as writing surface
Subcontinent
a large landmass that forms a distinct part of a continent
Monsoons
seasonal winds that dominate India's climate
Harappan Civilization
City Planning - Cities built on the grid system, plumbing + sewer system, and citadels for royal protection
Why do we know so little about these civilizations?
Language has not been deciphered
What was unique about their cities?
They had few weapons and Little social divisions
Citadels
A fortress for royal protection
Loess
fertile soil deposits from river
Shang Dynasty
1700 - 1027 BC (First family to leave written records)
Zhou Dynasty
1027 BC - 256 BC
Oracle Bones
animal bones/tortoise shells on which priests scratched questions for the gods
What was a major advantage of the Chinese writing system?
No links between spoken language
Mandate of Heaven
the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority
Dynastic Cycle
rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
Feudalism
control of religions given to royal family or nobels
Why did feudalism fail?
Nobles constantly fight, dynasty collapses