74 terms

Martini's Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
Anatomy
The study of internal and external structures of the body and the physical relationship among body parts
Physiology
The study of how living organisms perform their vital functions
Medical terminology
The use of prefixes, suffixes, word roots, and combining forms to construct anatomical, physiological, or medical terms.
Gross anatomy
Features that are visible without a microscope
Cytology
The study of cells
Histology
The study of tissues
Organs
Anatomical structures with multiple functions
Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive
The 11 organ systems of the body
In School - Naturally, My Ever-Crazy Learning Really Doesn't Utilize Rest.
A mnemonic for the organ systems: Integumentary, skeletal, nervous, muscular, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive
Homeostasis
The existence of a stable internal environment
Autoregulation
Occurs when a cell, tissue, organ or organ system adjusts its activities automatically in response to some environmental change
Extrinsic regulation
Caused by the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system
Receptor
In homeostasis, the part that is sensitive to a particular stimulus
Effector
In homeostasis, responds to the commands given by the control center
Control center
In homeostasis, the part that receives and processes the information and then sends out commands
Negative feedback
A corrective mechanism involving an action that directly opposes a variation from normal limits
Positive feedback
An initial stimulus that produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original conditions
Positive feedback loop
An escalating cycle which does not stop without intervention
Dynamic equilibrium
The term for equilibrium that is maintained by constant action
State of equilibrium
This exists when opposing processes or forces are in balance
Anatomical position
The standard arrangement for anatomical reference in which a person is palm-up
Supine
Face up
Prone
Face down
Abdominopelvic quadrants
Four parts of the abdominopelvic area formed by a pair of imaginary perpendicular lines that intersect at the umbilicus
Abdominopelvic regions
Nine parts of the abdominopelvic area
Levels of organization
Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism (CCTOOO)
Names of the abdominopelvic quadrants
Right upper, left upper, left lower, right lower
Names of the abdominopelvic regions
Right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right inguinal, hypogastric, left inguinal
Transverse plane
A plane that divides the body horizontally into superior and inferior sections
Frontal plane
A plane that divides the body vertically into anterior and posterior
Sagittal plane
A plane that divides the body vertically into left and right
Parasagittal plane
A plane that divides the body into uneven left and right portions
Anterior
The front surface (pairs with posterior)
Posterior
The back surface (pairs with anterior)
Ventral
The front surface (pairs with dorsal)
Superior
Above; at a higher level; toward the head
Inferior
Below; at a lower level
Dorsal
The back surface (pairs with ventral)
Medial
Toward the midsaggital plane; toward the body's longitudinal axis (ie, the surface of the thighs in contact)
Lateral
Away from the body's midsaggital plane; away from the body's longitudinal axis (ie, moving from the nose to the cheek)
Proximal
Toward an attached base
Distal
Away from an attached base
Superficial
At, near, or relatively close to the body surface
Deep
Further from the body surface
Ventral body cavity
The blanket term for the cavity containing both the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Thoracic cavity
Cavity that contains everything deep to the chest wall
Abdominopelvic cavity
Cavity that contains everything deep to the abdominal and pelvic walls, and the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Diaphragm
A flat muscular sheet separating the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities
Viscera
The internal organs that are partially or completely enclosed by body cavities in the ventral cavity
Pleural cavities
A cavity that has two sections, a left and a right, separated by the mediastinum
Pericardial cavity
A cavity and small chamber that surrounds the heart
Latin
The language of anatomy
principle of complementarity of structure and function
All specific functions are performed by specific structures, and the form of a structure relates to its function.
Physiology
Which is harder to observe, anatomy or physiology?
Physiology
Which field has more specialties, anatomy or physiology?
Scientific method
A system of advancing knowledge through questions and data
Scientific method
Diagnosing patients uses a logical framework based on this
Atom
The smallest stable unit of matter
Cells
The smallest living units in the body
Tissue
A group of cells working together to perform one or more specific functions
Organ
Two or more tissues working together to perform specific functions
Organ system
A group of organs interacting to perform a particular function
Organism
The highest level of organization
Homeostatic regulation
The adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis
Set point
In homeostasis, the desired value
Disease
a state of illness caused by malfunctioning organ systems
Superficial anatomy
locating structures on or near the body surface
Anatomical landmarks
Structures that can be felt or palpated
Anatomical regions
Specific areas for reference purpose
Cranial
Toward the head
transverse section
a cross section
peritoneal cavity
a potential space lined by the peritoneum; located within the abdominopelvic cavity
peritoneum
the lining of the peritoneal cavity
visceral peritoneum
covers the enclosed organs of the peritoneal cavity