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Middle Ages Vocab

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PLAY
wergeld
"man money", amount of gold, oxen, or grain that a murderer had to pay the family of his victim in order to avoid being killed by them. (Chapter 1)
excommunication
to cut off from communion with a church or exclude from the sacraments of a church
paladins
Charlemagne's elite group of armed horsemen
archchaplain
advised Charlemagne on religious matters
chancellor
advised Charlemagne on non-religious business
margraves
Charlemagne's men who ruled the districts, collect taxes, raise troops for the army, and serve as Charlemagne's representatives in local courts
missi dominici
"envoys of the lord". Charlemagne's two-man teams (priest and a layman) who served a one-year term. They heard complaints of the people, made sure orders were obeyed and that taxes were not being pocketed by administrators
Aachen
Charlemagne's capital, where he was born, made palace and school here
Carolingian miniscule
new form of writing that was compact, graceful, easy to read, words seperated with spaces, capitalization
Norsemen
medival Scandinavians, vikings
Erik the Red
Viking,banished for murder and sailed west to colonize Greenland
Valhalla
Viking heaven
Odin
A viking god that ruled over all the other gods
Primogeniture
Viking system that allowed the eldest son to inherit the family
Thing
democratic assembly by the Norsemen
lords
nobles
vassal
a knight who leased some land from a lord and would come to battle for him if needed
fief
the plot of land leased to a vassal
feudalism
the relationship between lords and vassals
scutage
"shield", practice of paying money instead of providing military service to a lord
three field system
three fields, one for wheat, one for other grains, one would lay fallow. Cows, sheep, horse would graze and fertilize land. Then each year the three fields would rotate and the next harvest would be more plentiful then the last.
tenants-in-chief
wealthy nobles
freemen
type of peasant, could move around wherever they wished and payed the lord rent
serfs
type of peasant, lord's property and had a life within 2 miles
keep
in a castle, the tower where men and lord were kept during times of war
bailey
in a castle, contained the lord's living quarters except in times of siege, protection for peasants and animals
portcullis
"sliding door", Drawbridge, at bottom row of spikes and connected to a pulley-like mechanism. Many castles had two so if the enemy got in they could lower the other and pour boiling liquids to kill enemy
hauberk
part of knight's clothing, knee-length tunic made up of iron rings that offered protection against spears and swords
chain mail
part of knight's clothing, vest made up over small interlinking rings
gambeson
part of knight's clothing, quilted or leather garmet that offered protection from the metal hurting the wearer's skin
sword
knight's main weapon and prized possession, in shape of cross so could be held up to knight so the cross could be his last earthly image
dagger
knight weapon, used to deliver death blow to a fallen enemy
mace
knight weapon, a wooden club with a metal head
war flail
knight weapon, a wooden ball studded with metal spikes and attached to a wooden handle by a chain. Used to bludgeon an opponent
destrier
war horse, bred for strength, stamina, and courage and trained to ride fearlessly into battle
coat of arms
Crest worn by the knights, each family had its own. Showed a sheild supported by two animals
page
at age seven a boy of noble birth would become this in order to be a knight, training from ladies in the castle to sing, dance, compose music, manners, learn stories from famous heroes in past
squire
after completing years as a page a young man would become this right before becoming a knight. Oiled knight's armor, took care of horses, waited upon him at meal time, helped knights in any way possible
colors of knighthood
red (willing to shed blood), black (not affraid of death), white (pureness of heart)
herald
offcial that kept track of all coat of arms so that nobody would use the same one
melee
type of jousting with no rules and many knights got killed
jouste a plaisance
type of jousting that was a friendly contest
joust a l'outrance
type of jousting, fight to death
Troubadours
Aquitaine noble poets who wrote music and verses about knights who preformed heroic deeds not for power but simply to win the love of a beautiful lady
Outremer
"Kingdom beyond the Sea", four feudal territories which were together known as
Hospitallers
Order that took up arms to defend pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem, hospitals, or Jersusalem itself. Followed Benedictine Rule.
Templars
Order that took strict military vows, started the most effcient baking systems in Europe, only interested in the money
Dieu le vault
"god wills it" Crusade battle cry
Saracens
The European name of the Seljuk Turks
five duchies
Bavaria, Franconia, Saxony, Swabia, Lorraine
First Crusade
1096 CE - 1099 CE
Second Crusade
1147 CE - 1149 CE
Third Crusade
1189 CE - 1192 CE
Fourth Crusade
1204 CE
lay investiture
end people that were not clergy
lay
not clergy
investiture
act of making someone a position in the clergy
clergy
people working for the church
dioceses
military districts
bishop
"overseer", governor of the dioceses
parish
dioceses are split up in _______ on a local level
archbishop
governors of big cities
priest
parish ruled by _______, a man of humble origins, conducts religious ceremonies
Pope
"papa", highest posistion in the Church, one of the most powerful men in Europe during Middle Ages
indulgence
an official edict that reduced or even erased the amount of time a person