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"man money", amount of gold, oxen, or grain that a murderer had to pay the family of his victim in order to avoid being killed by them. (Chapter 1)


to cut off from communion with a church or exclude from the sacraments of a church


Charlemagne's elite group of armed horsemen


advised Charlemagne on religious matters


advised Charlemagne on non-religious business


Charlemagne's men who ruled the districts, collect taxes, raise troops for the army, and serve as Charlemagne's representatives in local courts

missi dominici

"envoys of the lord". Charlemagne's two-man teams (priest and a layman) who served a one-year term. They heard complaints of the people, made sure orders were obeyed and that taxes were not being pocketed by administrators


Charlemagne's capital, where he was born, made palace and school here

Carolingian miniscule

new form of writing that was compact, graceful, easy to read, words seperated with spaces, capitalization


medival Scandinavians, vikings

Erik the Red

Viking,banished for murder and sailed west to colonize Greenland


Viking heaven


A viking god that ruled over all the other gods


Viking system that allowed the eldest son to inherit the family


democratic assembly by the Norsemen




a knight who leased some land from a lord and would come to battle for him if needed


the plot of land leased to a vassal


the relationship between lords and vassals


"shield", practice of paying money instead of providing military service to a lord

three field system

three fields, one for wheat, one for other grains, one would lay fallow. Cows, sheep, horse would graze and fertilize land. Then each year the three fields would rotate and the next harvest would be more plentiful then the last.


wealthy nobles


type of peasant, could move around wherever they wished and payed the lord rent


type of peasant, lord's property and had a life within 2 miles


in a castle, the tower where men and lord were kept during times of war


in a castle, contained the lord's living quarters except in times of siege, protection for peasants and animals


"sliding door", Drawbridge, at bottom row of spikes and connected to a pulley-like mechanism. Many castles had two so if the enemy got in they could lower the other and pour boiling liquids to kill enemy


part of knight's clothing, knee-length tunic made up of iron rings that offered protection against spears and swords

chain mail

part of knight's clothing, vest made up over small interlinking rings


part of knight's clothing, quilted or leather garmet that offered protection from the metal hurting the wearer's skin


knight's main weapon and prized possession, in shape of cross so could be held up to knight so the cross could be his last earthly image


knight weapon, used to deliver death blow to a fallen enemy


knight weapon, a wooden club with a metal head

war flail

knight weapon, a wooden ball studded with metal spikes and attached to a wooden handle by a chain. Used to bludgeon an opponent


war horse, bred for strength, stamina, and courage and trained to ride fearlessly into battle

coat of arms

Crest worn by the knights, each family had its own. Showed a sheild supported by two animals


at age seven a boy of noble birth would become this in order to be a knight, training from ladies in the castle to sing, dance, compose music, manners, learn stories from famous heroes in past


after completing years as a page a young man would become this right before becoming a knight. Oiled knight's armor, took care of horses, waited upon him at meal time, helped knights in any way possible

colors of knighthood

red (willing to shed blood), black (not affraid of death), white (pureness of heart)


offcial that kept track of all coat of arms so that nobody would use the same one


type of jousting with no rules and many knights got killed

jouste a plaisance

type of jousting that was a friendly contest

joust a l'outrance

type of jousting, fight to death


Aquitaine noble poets who wrote music and verses about knights who preformed heroic deeds not for power but simply to win the love of a beautiful lady


"Kingdom beyond the Sea", four feudal territories which were together known as


Order that took up arms to defend pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem, hospitals, or Jersusalem itself. Followed Benedictine Rule.


Order that took strict military vows, started the most effcient baking systems in Europe, only interested in the money

Dieu le vault

"god wills it" Crusade battle cry


The European name of the Seljuk Turks

five duchies

Bavaria, Franconia, Saxony, Swabia, Lorraine

First Crusade

1096 CE - 1099 CE

Second Crusade

1147 CE - 1149 CE

Third Crusade

1189 CE - 1192 CE

Fourth Crusade

1204 CE

lay investiture

end people that were not clergy


not clergy


act of making someone a position in the clergy


people working for the church


military districts


"overseer", governor of the dioceses


dioceses are split up in _______ on a local level


governors of big cities


parish ruled by _______, a man of humble origins, conducts religious ceremonies


"papa", highest posistion in the Church, one of the most powerful men in Europe during Middle Ages


an official edict that reduced or even erased the amount of time a person

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