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How did the rise of guilds affect the social structure of the Middle Ages?
It created a middle class
What effect did vernacular literature have on culture?
Vernacular literature established languages and made literature accessible
What did John Wycliffe and the authors of Defender of the Faith have in common?
Both wanted to limit church authority
How did the Holy Roman Emperor's powers compare to other monarchs?
He lacked the power base of united states
What changes made fighting in the Hundred Years' War different?
Introduction of the longbow and gunpowder
How did the Hanseatic League maintain control of its partners?
Established strict rules and punishments
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