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4.新GRE阅读——题型&解法&定位

1.说明:左-题型;右-定位技巧(解法) 2.处方:集中看50-60道*做过*的题干,不看选项,只看题干「什么题型、什么解法,如何定位」 3.疗效:2-3小时后,可熟练掌握定位技巧 4.参考:《GRE阅读制胜法则:多层结构法》
STUDY
PLAY
1.1 核心题-主题题
题干cue:
main idea
titles
is primarily concerned with
新老观点对立的文章找新观点/KWn
其他类型一般找首段 or 首句

#例子#
题干:The primary purposerpose* of the passage is to(29.1)
文段首句:Analyzing the physics of dance can add fundamentally to a dancera *dancer*'s skill.
答案:describe how one field of knowledge can be applied to anotherother* field
注:primary purpose考主题或者结构,这里考主题。找文章首句
1.2 核心题-结构题
题干cue:
primary purpose
organization
organization of the last paragraph5
长文:各段首句
短文:各句关系,主要定位各个观点和态度
结构答案必须与原文写作顺序一致
注意kw其中的转折,对比(however)关系。

#例子#
Which of the following best describes the function of the third paragraph of the passage?(31.2)
第三段首句:Knowing that phenols, including tannins, often act by associating with and altering the activity of proteins, researchers focused on the effects on caterpillars of ingesting the virus and leaves together.
答案:It shows how phenomena described in the first and second paragraphs act in combination.
解析:定位好之后,要找到答案关键词啊!这里 together = combination
1.3 核心题-态度题
最直接:选项为态度词
题干通常没有明显标志,有时会有一些态度词
如:
author`s attitude,drawback,weakness,value highly,consider...to be
定位到态度句
1.负评价常考aw- = however句 however句* 或者负评价词汇的句子
2.有时,让步转折句中也含有态度,可以定位
3.少数,句内插入成分,如though skeptical
2 信息题
题干通常为:
The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?
从选项找线索,带核心去排除
3 + 2 原则
a. 先想全文核心(首末段or句/转折句)
b. 直接看选项,2-3可直接排除(与主题无关,与结论、态度相反)
c. 2个再定位(用选项关键词定位原文关键词)
3.定点题
题干cue:
according to,infer,imply,suggest,indicate等词
在做题方面没有实质差别。
题干关键词 ➡️ 再定位原文 ➡️ 找到答案关键词 ➡️ 最后对照选项/在选项中找答案关键词
(带着答案关键词去看选项,快速排除没有中心词的同义词或者反义词的2-3个选项、剩余2个选项,比较其差异,再以其差异定位原文,仔细对照,确定答案)
3.1 细节题
针对某一细节发问
定位:直接找到该句,有时可找上下句顺承内容。
解法:
1.识别题干关键词
2.找到答案中心词
3.依次对照原文与选项的 主语、谓语、宾语、其他成分(不想当然,严格对应
4.除非是对比和因果,不要试图记住原文中的所有内容
5.留下两个相似,对进行对比差别。
-先找相同
-再找差异
选项:常常是同义词改写
3.2 列举题
只要能定位,列举题属于送分题
有 连续列举 & 论证列举
一般可定位 " , , and" 结构 或者 " ; ; and" 结构,或者连续单句并列
3.3 取非题
题干cue: would...if,might...if 或者differ from
取非的定义 = 增加or减少否定词not/little/never
定位原文某句来做题,可归入细节题
3.3.1 态度取非
题干cue:
... would have been more convincing/would be more valid/would be improved/might be not useful if ...
虚拟语气would 与AW一起,暗示原文其实是该态度的反面
定位:定位态度句(态度词汇 或者 however/but/yet)
解法:找出原因、取非出原因、*取非*原因或者态度
-原文:AW- if X
-题干:would AW+ if ?
-答案:NOT X

特别例子:It can be inferred from the passage that the author's conclusion that Einstein's approach is "erroneous" might have to be modified because (28.5 )
might have to be modified = might weaken/undermine
原文对结论是 负评价(erroneous), undermine 之后就变成正评价了。答案就将证据、实验、事实取非。
3.3.2 观点取非
题干没有态度词,但有would、might或could
这种体型不容易判断,只是借助虚拟语气词和题干内容与原文是否相反来大致确定。有时,即时题干有would,也不一定要取非。
定位:根据题干关键词定位
解法:
-原文:A :B
-题干:would not A
-答案:would not B
3.3.3 对比取非
题干cue:
differ from ,distinguish,compare,
characteristic,feature 等词,都可暗示对比
定位:原文有内容对比或者时间对比的句子
-内容对比:different,distinction,compare,distinguish,unlike,not found,absent,first,the most,more/less
-时间对比:early-later,traditionally-now,until recently-recent
解法:原文A-B相反,问A,取非B;问B,取非A,答案常有否定词取非B;问B,取非A,*答案常有否定词*;或者,原文说 A > B , 答案说 B < A 。
3.4 作用题/in order to
定位:机考界面下, 所问内容常有内容提示,定位容易
解法:找逻辑上一层
答案多往前找,偶尔也在后文,因为句子间多为总分关系。问分的内容,在其逻辑上一层找总的内容,通常在前。
少数情况,后文有总结的,在后。
TW/TS —— KW1 —— KW2(x y[= svo {modifiers}])
原文:x vs. y 题干:x serves to ? 答案:1.contrast with y,not y 2. emphasize y
原文:kw. a.b ~x = ~kw , x = but k. 题干:~kw/~x serves to? 答案:1.qualify kw. 2. contrast with x

#例子# x vs. y. y*
题干:The author mentions "folk fashion" most likely in order to
原文:Whereas spirituals were created and disseminated in folk fashion, gospel music was composed, published, copyrighted, and sold by professionals.
答案:make a distinction between gospel music and slave spirituals
解析:folk fashion 属于对比句的宾语之一,所以逻辑上一层就是整个句子。所以作用就是为了展示g与s之间的差异
3.5 选择句子题
题干:select the sentence that ...
与作用题高度接近,作用对应词汇
主题题* main idea,main purpose
观点 theory , hypothesis,view,suggestion,proposal
态度 attitude,tone
证据 evidence,support for,detail
对比比* distinguish,distinction,contrast,comparison
让步 concession,qualify,qualification of
举例例* example,illustration
定位:题干关键词
解法:题干通常会有2-3个结构要素,每个要素涉及一个句子,要做出正确答案,就要理解好几个句子的功能作用,而不是单独某个句子而已。
如:
Select the sentence that provides support for an answer to a question.
provides support for = 证据
answer = 关键或者假说
question = 话题或者主题
要做的是:选择一个观点的证据,而不是问题或者对这个问题的回答或观点
#举例#
Select the sentence in the passage that indicates certain causes of the alteration of organisms to their habitat. (29.3)
答案:Many of the important effects of organisms are related to[提示因果] their physiology, especially growth and respiration.
especially growth and respiration = certain causes
4.推理题
50字左右,只出一题
...
4.1 逻辑题
包括
题干cue:if true,would support/would weaken 等
注意文中出现的since,because,ifce,because,if* 等命题之间的因果,条件关系的词汇
也要注意句子的谓语部分出现的表示相关和因果关系的词汇,例如 correlate with,coincide with

做逻辑题最重要的就是找到三部分,premise+conclusion+assumption
4.1.1 逻辑反对
题干cue:if true true*,would weaken/undermine/cast doubt on a certain theory/argument in the passage
解法:
1.反对原因,反对关系
2.有他因

#例子#
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?(29.2)
Premise1 : H`s contracture-disorder in one or both hands, causing loss of mobility
Premise2: 30% people, one hand for H ,underwent surgery a second time for this disorder within three years.
Conclusion: (therefore) single surgical treatment of H is ineffective a long-term correction.
反对,可以加大前提和结论之间的概念差异
如果反对,可以说
1. 30% 不是正常情况 [反对原因]
2. 一只手做过了,要做的是另一只手[有他因]
4.1.2 逻辑支持
题干cue: if true, would support/strengthen a certain theory/argument in the passages
做题目,首先要找好尺子。以这个为尺子去衡量答案。
解法:
1.支持论据;举例或者重复;提供中间环节;取非反对论据
2.无他因
4.1.3 假设、调和差异、完成推理
题干cue: assumption/ explain the different/reconcile the discrepancy,the paradox,complete the paragraph/ complete the argument
解法:
找出论证的调节或者中间环节
做逻辑题最重要的就是找到三部分,premise+conclusion+assumption
找到前提与结论的差异就可以预判答案了。

例如:Which of the following is an assumption on which the economist's argument depends?(28.4)
前提:新厂的工人有工会史的比例低于老厂
结论:歧视
假设:是歧视的行为在筛选工人,而非其他
4.1.4逻辑续写
解法:
*1.逻辑顺承,可以并列、举例、推理、甚至让步转折,但不能对比、转折否定,
2.重现关键词。
3.关注文段首句(大方向) & 续写的前一句(路标)*

#例子# 关注续写的前一句
题干:Which of the following, if presented as the first sentence of a succeedingeding* paragraph, would most logically continue the discussion presented in the passage?
原文:Their initial trials were highly successful, and ocean acoustic tomographyraphy* was born.(第二段最后一句)
答案:
To understand how ocean acoustic tomography works, it is necessary to know how sound travels in the ocean.
答案重现段末的关键词ocean acoustic tomography

#例子# 关注文段首句
题干:Of the following sentences, which is most likely to have immediately preceded the passage?(32.5)
文段首句:This is not to denyt to deny*[提示让步] that the Black gospel music of the early twentieth century differed in important ways from the slave spirituals.[g ≠ s]
答案:Spirituals and Black gospel music were derived from the same musical tradition. [g = s]
4.2 类比题
少见
题干cue:analogous to,similar to,parallel,comparable to
解法:抽掉具体名词,保留关系与态度,主要是 v. adj. 抽象名词

#例子#
题干:Which of the following is most analogous to the relationship between the African American Revolutionary War participants who settled in Canada after the American Revolution and the American revolutionariesaries*, as that relationship is described in the passage?(33.5)
原文:Frey sees this inheritances reflected in their[A] demands for the same rights that the American revolutionaries[B] had demanded from the Britishitish*[C]: land ownership, limits to arbitrary authority and burdensome taxes, and freedom of religion.
抽象关系:A 与 B 曾经对立,但都先后从C要求同样的东西。
答案:A child who has sided with a domineering parent against a defiant sibling later makes demands of the parent similar to those once made by the sibling.
鸡汤&干货:不要因为时间短,没有看到文章,就放弃这样的题目。定位到原文,找出句中对象,和动词,对应到答案或许就可以做出来。不要想着一下子就看出结果,分步解决问题。总有你可以往前进一步的地方。Focus on the next direct baby step. | P.s. 而且这道题其他选项都只有两个对象,而正确答案应该出现3个对象。
题干中可优先定位的内容
大写,人名,时间,数字,这些内容在文章中都很醒目,容易看出
题干中仅有细节名词
通过首句判断段落;或从选项找线索
如:The passage suggests that the author would be likely to agree with which of the following statements about the social structure of eighteenth-centuryury* American society?(《36套》27.2)
定位:首先确定段落,social structure是属于第2段class,还是第三段sectional?社会结构问题是阶级问题,定位第2段。再根据 eighteenth-century社会结构问题是阶级问题,定位第2段。再根据 *eighteenth-century* 定位。