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Taught that life should be meaningful


Technique to show distance


Created movable type printing press


Dutch scholar who criticized the church


Purchased pardons from punishment

Martin Luther

Wrote 95 theses against indulgences

John Calvin

Preached that some were predestined for salvation


Government ruled by religious leaders


Religious order that spread Catholicism during the Counter Reformation


Removal of belief in magic

The Renaissance began in Italy DID NOT begin because of

Interest in early Christian writings

All of the following are Renaissance artists EXCEPT(Castiglione, Giotto, Michelanglo, Titian)


Erasmus differed from Italian Renaissance scholars in that

He studied the work of early Christians

Writers such as Shakespeare and Marlowe focused on

Human actions and emoitions

Religious dissent WAS NOT caused by

Dismissing the classics in favor of Christian teachings

Luther's teachings

Decreased the role fo teh clergy

Luther's ideas spread quickly because of

The printing press

The Anglican Church was formed as a result of

Henry VIII's fight with the Pope over his divorce

The Edict of Nantes

Gave French Calvinists some rights

The Council of Trent DID NOT

Eliminate the emphasis on ceremony

The Reformation and the Counter Reformation led to

Less religious tolerance

Small town life in rapidly changing times led to

Less tolerance for individuality

Superstition and witchcraft helped Renaissance people explain

The Unknown

Broadsides were

Single page sheets of news

Education increased during the Renaissance because of

Encouragement from the church

Renaissance scholars

Emphasized the power of human reason

How did Renaissance scholars' ideas differ from those of medieval scholars

They studied the ancient world for its achievements, rather than in terms of Christianity

Humanists DID NOT attempt to understand the classics in terms of


What did the humanists believe about human life?

That this life has value aside from preparation for the afterlife

Printing with movable type first appeared in


What effects did printing have on Renaissance life and literature?

New ideas spread faster; encouraged education

The center of northern Renaissance art was


What characteristics mark northern Renaissance art?

Extreme realism and detail

Martin Luther taught that

Faith led to salvation

What did Luther mean by "justification by grace through faith?"

Only simple faith and God's grace lead to salvation

Calvinists believed that

Some people were predestined for salvation

What kind of lives did Calvinists lead and why?

Simple; self disciplined. This would make the world safe for the chosen

The Counter Reformation was

The spiritual reform of the Catholic church

What caused the Counter Reformation?

Loss of believers to Protestantism

The Jesuits were created to

Spread Catholicism

How did the Jesuits accomplish their mission?

Education and humanist teachings

Standards of living increased during the Renaissance because

More peasants became free and could earn wages

How did population affect standards of living?

Decrease in the work force led to higher wages

People DID NOT migrate from the country to the city for

Religious freedom

How did migration to the cities affect traditional culture?

People looked to logical explanations rather than folklore

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