Unit 1 AP World History Terms
Terms in this set (54)
An ambiguous term given often used to denote more complex societies
Socially transmitted patterns of human action and expression
The historical period characterized by the production of tools from stone and other nonmetallic substances
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans
People who support themselves by hunting, fishing, and gathering wild edible plants and insects.
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between 8000 and 2000 BCE
Structures and complexes of very large stones constructed for ceremonial and religious purposes
The people who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium BCE
Family of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. Includes Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician.
A small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory
The largest and most important city of Mesopotamia; capital of Hammurabi's kingdom of Babylonia
Amorite ruler of Babylon (ruled 1792-1750 BCE); conquered many city-states and expanded Babylonia
A professional position reserved for men who had undergone training for early writing (i.e. cuneiform, hieroglyphics)
A massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mud bricks
Small charm meant to protect the bearer from evil
A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables; originated in Mesopotamia
An alloy of copper with a small amount of tin. During Bronze Age was the primary metal for tools and weapons.
The central figure in the ancient Egyptian state. Believed to be reincarnation of gods
Egyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order of the universe
A large, triangular stone monument, used in Egypt and Nubia as a burial place for the king
capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near head of Nile Delta
picture symbols that stand for words, syllables, or individual sounds
reed that grows along the Nile and is used as writing material
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
the largest Indus River civilizations, organized, sewage systems, public wells
Began around 1000 B.C.E. and was characterized by the increased production of iron, rather than bronze, for materials. Iron provided more powerful weapons, and allowed forgers to vary the hardness by adding carbon.
One of the few known female pharaohs of ancient Egypt. She was known for sending a trading expedition to Punt (thought to be modern-day Sudan or Eritrea) to find the source of myrrh. After her death, images of her were defaced and destroyed.
An ancient Egyptian pharaoh who was known for only allowing worship of the sun god Aten, and closing the temples of other gods; also created a more natural form of art. After ____'s death, the temples of other gods were reopened by the priests.
An Egyptian pharaoh and a member of the Ramesside dynasty, whose main concern was to continue expanding the empire. _________ was known for his large number of monument building projects, and was believed to have fathered over 100 children.
The first complex civilization in ancient Greece, and arose on the island of Crete.
The _________n civilization was an ancient civilization on mainland Greece. It is believed that it was the ________n civilization that destroyed the temples on Crete, since they later took over the Minoan civilization.
An ancestral language to modern Greek that uses pictoral signs for syllables. _____ was used to keep control of the economy of ancient Greece through careful counting of debts.
The most powerful civilization after 1000 B.C.E., after the fall of the civilizations of the late Bronze Age, and at its height extended to Egypt, Babylon, and the Taurus and Zagros Mountains.
A terror tactic used by the Assyrians to keep control of their kingdom. In this process, entire communities were uprooted and moved to another area.
The land occupied by the Israelites, and it lies at the crossroads of Anatolia, Egypt, Arabia, and Mesopotamia. It is told that a man from Mesopotamia named Abraham took a group of herders to Israel, and settled there.
A compilation of interpretations of events in the history of the Middle East, and was written in the Hebrew language. This compilation serves as one of the major sources of written history for the region.
A temple built in Jerusalem by Solomon, the king of Israel. This temple served as a link between religious and political rules.
The belief in a single, all-powerful God.
The dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the Middle East. This first occured when the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel and deported its occupants to Babylon and the surrounding areas. There, the Jews had such a prosperous life that they refused to return to Israel when offered by a later Persian monarch.
A people occupying the land above Israel, refered to as Phoenicia. ________ were primarily interested in trade as a form of government, which was facilitated by the expanse of the Mediterranean to the west.
A Phoenician colony in northern Africa. Carthage was one of the largest cities during that time period, and its power lied mainly in its navy and the fact that it controlled trade in the middle of the Mediterranean.
A fine, light silt deposited by wind and water. It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China. Because ____ soil is not compacted, easily worked, but it leaves the region vulnerable to earthquakes. (p.58)
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of ____ culture. (p. 59)
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The ___ era, particularly the vigorous early period (1027-771 B.C.E.), was remembered in Chinese tradition as a time of prosperity and benevolent rule. In the later ___ period (771-221 B.C.E.), centralized control broke down, and warfare among many small states became frequent. (p. 61)
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, according to which it was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China and to take away that power if the ruler failed to conduct himself justly and in the best interests of his subjects. (p. 61)
Western name for the Chinese philosopher Kongzi (551-479 B.C.E.). His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials. (p. 62)
Chinese school of thought, originating in the Warring States Period with Laozi (604-531 B.C.E.). ____ offered an alternative to Confucian emphasis on hierarchy and duty.
In Chinese belief, complementary factors that help to maintain the equilibrium of the world. Yin is associated with masculine, light, and active qualities; yang with feminine, dark, and passive qualities. (p. 63)
An Egyptian name for Nubia, the region alongside the Nile River south of Egypt, where an indigenous kingdom with its own distinctive institutions and cultural traditions arose beginning in the early second millennium B.C.E. It was deeply influenced by Egyptian culture and at times under the control of Egypt, which coveted its rich deposits of gold and luxury products from sub-Saharan Africa carried up the Nile corridor. (p. 70)
People without permanent, fixed places of residence, whose way of life and means subsistence require them to periodically migrate.
An ecological region of grass- and shrub-covered plains that is treeless and too arid for agriculture
Heir to the technique of historia ("investigation/research") developed by the Greeks in the late Archaic period.
Term used by the ancient Greeks for the nomadic peoples living on the steppe north of the Black and Caspian Seas.
Peoples sharing common linguistic and cultural features that originated in central Europe in the first half of the first millenium BCE.
The class of religious experts who conducted rituals and preserved sacred lore among some ancient Celtic peoples.