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AP World History: First Semester Test Review

STUDY
PLAY
Prehistory
period before invention of writing
Homo erectus
"upright-walking human" ; used cleavers and hand axes and learned how to control fire
Development of Language
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Paleolithic & Neolithic Era
Paleolithic - "Old Stone Age" ; a long period of human development before the devlopment of agriculture
Neolithic - "New Stone Age" ; marked by the discovery and mastery of agriculture
Mesopotamia
"between the rivers" ; Sumer and Akkad are two of the earliest societies
Sumer
earliest Mesopotamian societies
Sargon of Akkad
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Hammurabi
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Cuneiform
written language of the Sumerians ; probably first written script in the world
Alphabet
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Menes
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Old, Middle, and New Kingdom
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Amon-Re
Egyptian god ; combination of the sun god Re and the air god Amon
Akhenaten
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Osiris
Ancient Egyptian god the represent the forces of nature
Bantu
African peoples that began a centuries long migration that took them to most of sub-Saharan Africa ; influential linguistically
Mohenjo-Daro
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Harappa
early brilliant Indian society centered in Harappa and Monhenjo-daro
Aryan
European migrants who settled in India after their union with indigenous Dravidians formed the basis of Hinduism
Varnas
Hindu word for caste
Sati
Indian practice for a widow throwing herself on the funeral pyre of her husband
Samsara
Hindu term for the concept of transmigration ; the soul passing into a new incarnation
River Valley Civilizations
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Mandate of Heaven
Chinese belief that the emperors ruled through the mandate, or approval, of heaven contingent on their ability to look after the welfare of the population
Shang Dynasty
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Maize
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Olmec & Maya
Olmec - early Mesoamerican society that later influenced later Maya
Maya - central American society known for math, astronomy, and a sophisticated written language
Yahweh
God of the monotheistic religion of Judaism that influenced later Christianity and Islam
Zhou Dynasty
Chinese dynasty that was the foundation of Chinese thought formed during period of Confucianism, Daoism, and Zhou Classics
Cyrus
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Empires After Alexander
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Qanat
Persian underground canal
Persepolis
Greek city-state
Alexander the Great
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Satrapies
Persian administrators, usually members of royal family, who governed a satrapy
Chandragupta
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Ashoka
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Mauryan & Gupta Dynasty
Mauryan - Indian dynasty founded by Chandragupta Maurya and reaching its peak under Ashoka
Gupta - Indian dynasty that briefly reunited India after the collapse of the earlier Mauryan dynasty
Laozi
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Bhagavad Gita
"Song of the Lord" ; and Indian short poetic work drawn from the lengthy Mahabharata that expressed basic Hindu concepts such as karma and dharma
Siddhartha Gautama
Indian kshatriya who achieved enlightenment and became known as the Buddha, the founder of Buddhism
Darius
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Persian War
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Hellenism
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Qin Shihuangdi
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Yellow Turban Uprising
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Analects
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Han Wudi
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Monsoons
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Ahimsa
Jain term for the principal of nonviolence to other living things or their souls
Four Noble Truths
foundation of Buddhist though:
1) life is pain
2)pain is caused by desire
3) elimintation of desire will bring an end to pain
4)living a life based on the Noble Eightfold Path will eliminate desire
Polis
Greek term for city-state
Tyrant
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Delian League
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Socrates
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Plato & The Republic
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Consuls
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Julius Caesar
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Twelve Tables
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Jesus of Nazareth
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Paul of Tarsus
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Constantinople
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Byzantine Empire
long-lasting empire centered at Constantinople; grew out of the end of the Roman empire, carried the legacy of Roman greatness and was the only classical society to survive into the early modern age; it reached its early peak during the reign of Justinian
Muhammad
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Dar al-Islam
"house of Islam" ; term for the Islamic world
Umayyad
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Five Pillars of Islam
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Meleka
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Junks & Dhows
Indian, Persian, and Arab ships; weighed one hundred to four hundred tons that sailed and traded throughout the Indian Ocean basin
Harsha
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Equal-Field System
Chinese system during the Tang dynasty in which the goal was to ensure an equitable distribution of land
Fast-Ripening System
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Gran Canal
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Tang & Song Dynasty
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Shogun
Japanese military leader who ruled in place of the emperor
Sunni vs. Shia
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Jizya
tax in Islamic empires that was imposed on non-Muslims
Madrasas
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Sui Yangdi
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Indian Emporia
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Hagia Sophia
massive Christian church constructed by the Byzantine emperor Justinian and later converted into a mosque
Justinian
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Feudalism
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Griots
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Swahili City-States
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Mali
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Zimbabwe
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Sundiata
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Mansa Musa
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Hanseatic League
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Three Esates
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Scholasticism
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Virgin Mary
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Otto I
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First Crusade
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Wiliam of Normandy
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Dominicans & Franciscans
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Aztec Empire
Central American empire constructed by the Mexica and expanded during the reigns of Itzcoatl and Montecuzoma I
Mexica Society
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Chinampa
used by Aztecs ; fertile muck from the lake bottoms was dredged and built up into small plots
Quipu
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Aztec Sacrifice
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Calpulli
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Mahmud
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Chinggis & Khubilai Khan
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Mongol Empires
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Tamerlane
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Osman
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Mehmed II
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St. Thomas Aquinas
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Idn Battuta
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Marco Polo
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Hongwu
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Reconquista
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Zheng He
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