How do plants benefit from having their fruit eaten?
they benefit because animals pollunate it when they eat it
During photosynthesis plants and some other organisms use what to covert carbon dioxise and water into oxygen and sugars?
energy from the sun
What two raw materials does a plant need to do the second step of photosynthesis?
water and carbon dioxide
How does the water travel in the second step of photosynthesis?
the roots absorb it from the soil -> moves through the stem to the leaves -> once in leave with carbo dioxide they both move into the chloroplast
How does the carbon dioxidetravel in photosynthesis?
enters through the stomata -> once in leave with water they both move into the chloroplast
Once the water and carbon dioxide are in the chloroplast what happens?
they undergo a series of chemical reactions that are powered by the energy from the first stage, then the reactions produce two chemicals
What are the two chemicals the second stage of photosynthesis produces?
sugar that has six carbon atoms and oxygen
What is the equation for photosynthesis in words?
carbon dioxide + water light energy(yields) a six atom sugar + oxygen
What happens to sugar produced in photosynthesis?
the cell breaks down the sugar molecules to release the energy. the energy is then used to carry out the plant's functions
cells break down fsimple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain
Energy stored in cells in similar to a bank account. Why?
it's similar because you can withdraw and deposit whenever you need to
In what form do cells "deposit and save" energy?
they save it in the form of carbohydrates including sugars and starches
How do cells "withdraw" energy?
they withdraw energy by breaking down the carbohydrates in the process of respiration
Whatis the first stage of respiration?
molecules of glucose in the cytoplasm are broken down into smaller molecules. oxygen is NOT used and only a small amount of energy is released
What is the second stage of respiration?
the small molecules in the mitochondria are broken down into even smaller molecules. the chemical reactions require oxygen and release a lot of energy
What is the equation for respiration in words?
sugar + oxygen light energy(yields) carbon dioxide + water
What are the similarities and differences for the two equations?
They are almost exactly oposit except for the fact that respiration also produces energy but photosynthesis doesn't use energy to produce substances
What is alcoholic fermentation?
this type occurs when yeast and some other single-celled organisms break down sugars. it produces alcohol, carbon dioxide, and a small amount of energy
How does alcoholic fermentation affect bakers and brewers?
it affects them because the carbon dioxide produced by the yeast creates air pockets in the bread dough causing it to rise. oit is also a source of bubbles in alcoholic drinks
What is lactic acid fermentation?
this is when your muscle cells use up your oxygen faster than it can be produced. it supplies your cells with energy. one product is lactic acid which when it builds up causes a painful sensation in your muscles
What are the stages of the cell cycle?
interphase, mitosis: prophase, mitosis: metaphase, mitosis: anaphase, mitosis: telephase, cytokinesis
What is interphase?
it's when the cell grows to its mature size, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into two new cells. Two cylindrical structures called centrioles are also copied.
What is mitosis: prophase?
it's when chromatin in the nucleus condenses to form chromosome. the pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus. spindle fibers form a bridge between the ends of the cell. the nucleur envelope breaks down
What is mitosis: metaphase?
it's when the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. each chromosome attatches to a spindle fiber at its centromere.
What is mitosis: telophase?
it's when the chromosomes begin to stretch out and lose their rodlike appearance. a new nucleur envelope forms around each region of chromosomes. the DNA is once again seperated from the cytoplasm by a membrane
What is cytokinesis?
it's when the cell membrane pinches in around the middle of the cell. each daughter cell ends up with an identical set of chromosomes and about half the organelles
When a new DNA molecule is duplicated how are the nitrogen bases?
they are exact matches of the DNA molecule
What is differentiation?
the process in which cells change in structure and become capable of carrying out specialized functions
Once a cell's future has been determined when and how much it changes depends on what?
it's DNA, it's function, and the type of organism
What kind of cells can stem cells produce in the human body?
they can produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets`
What characteristics do plants have?
multicellular photoautotrophs, eukaryotes, live on land, roots, stems, leaves (most), cell wall, cuticle
What do plants need to survive?
sunlight, water, minerals, gas exchange, movement of water, materials
What is the important evolutionary adaptation that plants have?
ability to aquire, transport, and conserve water
why don't vascular plants with seeds need water to reproduce?
their seeds are carried by wind, water, or animals to the female part of a flower to reproduce
why do non-vascular and vascular plants with seeds need water to reproduce?
the sperm swim through the water to go fertilize the egg
what is the life cycle of a plant?
sporophyte goes through meiosis creating spores that turn into gametophytes which create sperm and eggs that fertilize and create a zygote that goes through mitosis growing into more spores
stomata, tiny openings on the underside of leaves, are the site of gas exchange and water loss