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What organisms start all food chains?


What does the accumulation of oxygen form?

the ozone layer

What allowed plants to get a firm hold on land?


What is the largest living organism?

Giant Redwoods

What is the relationship between nsects and plants?

Insects help pollunate plants

List three kinds of animals that help pollunate plants.

Honey Possums, bees, butterflies

Name at least one predatory plant.

Venus Fly Trap

What do some flowers become?


How do plants benefit from having their fruit eaten?

they benefit because animals pollunate it when they eat it

an organism that makes its own food


a process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food


Nearly all living things obtain energy from...

the sun eithier indirectly or directly

During photosynthesis plants and some other organisms use what to covert carbon dioxise and water into oxygen and sugars?

energy from the sun

What is the first step of photosynthesis?

capturing the sun's energy

Why are chloroplasts green?

they are green because of the pigment

colored chemical compounds that absorb light


the main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts


What is the second step of photosynthesis?

using energy to make food

What two raw materials does a plant need to do the second step of photosynthesis?

water and carbon dioxide

How does the water travel in the second step of photosynthesis?

the roots absorb it from the soil -> moves through the stem to the leaves -> once in leave with carbo dioxide they both move into the chloroplast

How does the carbon dioxidetravel in photosynthesis?

enters through the stomata -> once in leave with water they both move into the chloroplast

Once the water and carbon dioxide are in the chloroplast what happens?

they undergo a series of chemical reactions that are powered by the energy from the first stage, then the reactions produce two chemicals

What are the two chemicals the second stage of photosynthesis produces?

sugar that has six carbon atoms and oxygen

small openings on the undersides of leaves


Why are plants green?

they are green because of pigments and chloroplasts

What is the equation for photosynthesis in words?

carbon dioxide + water light energy(yields) a six atom sugar + oxygen

What is the equation for photosynthesis in symbols?


What happens to sugar produced in photosynthesis?

the cell breaks down the sugar molecules to release the energy. the energy is then used to carry out the plant's functions

the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose


During respiration...

cells break down fsimple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain

What types of cells respire?

ALL cells

How often do plants undergo respiration?


Energy stored in cells in similar to a bank account. Why?

it's similar because you can withdraw and deposit whenever you need to

In what form do cells "deposit and save" energy?

they save it in the form of carbohydrates including sugars and starches

How do cells "withdraw" energy?

they withdraw energy by breaking down the carbohydrates in the process of respiration

Whatis the first stage of respiration?

molecules of glucose in the cytoplasm are broken down into smaller molecules. oxygen is NOT used and only a small amount of energy is released

What is the second stage of respiration?

the small molecules in the mitochondria are broken down into even smaller molecules. the chemical reactions require oxygen and release a lot of energy

What are two products, besides energy, of respiration?

carbon dioxide and water

When are carbon dioxide and water released during respiration?

they are released when you exhale

What is the equation for respiration in words?

sugar + oxygen light energy(yields) carbon dioxide + water

What is the equation for respiration in symbols?


What are the similarities and differences for the two equations?

They are almost exactly oposit except for the fact that respiration also produces energy but photosynthesis doesn't use energy to produce substances

an energy releasing process that does NOT require energy


How much energy dopes fermentation produce?

it produces very littel energy

What are the two types of fermentation?

alcoholic and lactic acid

What is alcoholic fermentation?

this type occurs when yeast and some other single-celled organisms break down sugars. it produces alcohol, carbon dioxide, and a small amount of energy

How does alcoholic fermentation affect bakers and brewers?

it affects them because the carbon dioxide produced by the yeast creates air pockets in the bread dough causing it to rise. oit is also a source of bubbles in alcoholic drinks

What is lactic acid fermentation?

this is when your muscle cells use up your oxygen faster than it can be produced. it supplies your cells with energy. one product is lactic acid which when it builds up causes a painful sensation in your muscles

What are the stages of the cell cycle?

interphase, mitosis: prophase, mitosis: metaphase, mitosis: anaphase, mitosis: telephase, cytokinesis

the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo

cell cycle

What are the two new cells that are made in the cell cycle?

daughter cells

What is interphase?

it's when the cell grows to its mature size, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into two new cells. Two cylindrical structures called centrioles are also copied.

What is mitosis: prophase?

it's when chromatin in the nucleus condenses to form chromosome. the pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus. spindle fibers form a bridge between the ends of the cell. the nucleur envelope breaks down

What is mitosis: metaphase?

it's when the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. each chromosome attatches to a spindle fiber at its centromere.

What is mitosis: telophase?

it's when the chromosomes begin to stretch out and lose their rodlike appearance. a new nucleur envelope forms around each region of chromosomes. the DNA is once again seperated from the cytoplasm by a membrane

What is cytokinesis?

it's when the cell membrane pinches in around the middle of the cell. each daughter cell ends up with an identical set of chromosomes and about half the organelles

What is replication?

a process in which the cell makes an exact copy of the DNA in its nucleus

the stage during in which the cell's nucleus divides into two nuclei


double-rod structures that are made when threadlike chromatin in the nucleus condense


the stage when cytoplasm divides and are distributed into each of the two new cells


Which nitrogen ases pair together?

adenine pairs with thymine / guanine pairs with cytosine

When a new DNA molecule is duplicated how are the nitrogen bases?

they are exact matches of the DNA molecule

What is differentiation?

the process in which cells change in structure and become capable of carrying out specialized functions

Once a cell's future has been determined when and how much it changes depends on what?

it's DNA, it's function, and the type of organism

What are stem cells?

cells that can differentiate throughout life

What kind of cells can stem cells produce in the human body?

they can produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets`

What characteristics do plants have?

multicellular photoautotrophs, eukaryotes, live on land, roots, stems, leaves (most), cell wall, cuticle

What do plants need to survive?

sunlight, water, minerals, gas exchange, movement of water, materials

What is the important evolutionary adaptation that plants have?

ability to aquire, transport, and conserve water

What are some examples of non-vascular plants?

mosses and relatives

what are some examples of seedless vascular plants?

ferns and relatives

What are some examples of vascular plants with seeds?

angiosperms (fowers) and gymnosperms (cones)

what types of plants need water to reproduce?

non vascular and seedless vascular plants

why don't vascular plants with seeds need water to reproduce?

their seeds are carried by wind, water, or animals to the female part of a flower to reproduce

why do non-vascular and vascular plants with seeds need water to reproduce?

the sperm swim through the water to go fertilize the egg

what are the two life cycles of plants called?

alternation and generation


produces gametes, after fertilization grows into sporophyte, 1n


produces spores that grow into gametophytes, dominant phase for most plants, 2n

what is the life cycle of a plant?

sporophyte goes through meiosis creating spores that turn into gametophytes which create sperm and eggs that fertilize and create a zygote that goes through mitosis growing into more spores


loss of water trough plant leaves

gas exchange

stomata, tiny openings on the underside of leaves, are the site of gas exchange and water loss

what happens during photosynthesis?

co2 goes in and o2 and water vapor goes out

guard cells

control the opening/closing of the stomata

in general when do the stomata open and close?

open during the day closes during the night

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