A schedule of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement.
A stimulus, such as food or water that is naturally rewarding and satisfying and requires no learning on the part of the subject to become pleasurable.
A stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with a primary reinforcer.
A schedule of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained.
A form of learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in the likelihood that similar actions will occur again.
The ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli.
A schedule of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement.
A learning procedure in which associations are made between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.
In classical conditioning, the tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.
Information received after an action as to its effectiveness or correctness.
In classical conditioning, the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response because the reinforcement is withheld or because the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.
Technique of operant conditioning in which the desired behavior is molded by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior and then requiring ever-closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward.
Learning that is not demonstrated by an immediate, observable change in behavior.
When a perceived unpleasant stimulus is removed or not applied (subtracted) after a behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of that behavior happening again.
A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.
When a perceived pleasant stimulus is given/received (added) after a behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of that behavior happening again.
A schedule of reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained each time.
When a person over time receives rewards without effort they learn they do not have to work hard.
A condition in which repeated attempts to control or influence a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable and that any effort to cope will fail.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
An event that elicits a certain predictable response without previous training.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
An organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response (CR)
A response elicited by the conditioned stimulus; it is similar to the unconditioned response, but not identical in magnitude or amount.
The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The reward may lessen and replace the person's original, natural motivation, so that the behavior stops if the reward is eliminated.