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large,elegant department stores

The new cities' glittering consumer economy was symbolized especially by the rise of

disposing of large quantities of consumer-generated waste material

One of the most difficult new problems generated by the rise of cities and the urban American life-style was

the electric trolley and the skyscraper

Two new technical developments of the late nineteenth century that contributed to the spectacular growth of American cities were

Poland and Italy

Countries from which many of the "New Immigrants" came included

American food imports and religious persecution

Among the factors driving millions of European peasants from their homeland to America were

antisweatshop laws to protect women and child laborers

Besides providing direct services to immigrants, the reformers of Hull House worked for general goals like


The one immigrant group that was totally banned from America after 1882 as a result of nativist agitation was the

Jews and Roman Catholics

Two religious groups that grew most dramatically because of the "New Immigration" were

the efforts of some Christian reformers to apply their religious beliefs to new social problems

The phrase "social Gospel" refers to

the cities offered new challenges and opportunities for women

Besides aiding immigrants and promoting social reforms, settlement houses like Jane Addams' Hull House demonstrated that

the biological ideas of Charles Darwin

Traditional American Protestant religion received a substantial blow from

integration and social equality for blacks

Unlike Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois advocated

federal and state "land grant" asistance and the private philanthropy of wealthy donors

In the late nieteenth century, American colleges and universities benefited especially from

utopian reforms to end poverty and eliminate class conflict

American social reformers like Henry George and Edward Bellamy advocated

social realism and contemporary problems

Authors like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, and Jack London turned American literature toward a greater concentration with

dumbell tenement

High-rise urban buildings that provided barrackslike housing for urban slum dwellers.

new immigrants

Term for the post-1880 newcomers who came to America primarily from southern and eastern Europe

birds of passage

Immigrants who came to America to earn money for a time and then returned to their native land

social gospel

The religious doctrines preached by those who believed the churches should directly address economic and social problems.

hull house

Settlement house in the Chicago slums that became a model for women's involvement in urban social reform

social worker

Profession established by Jane Addams and others that opened njew opportunities for women while engaging urban problems

American Protective Association (APA)

Nativist organization that attacked "New Immigrants" and Roman Catholicism in the 1880s and 1890s

Roman Catholics

The church that became the largest American religious group, mainly as a result of the "New Immigration"

Tuskegee Institute

Black educational institution founded by Booker T. Washington to provide training in agriculture and crafts

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Organization founded by W.E.B. Du Bois and others to advance black social and economic equality

Progress and Poverty

Henry George's best-selling book that advocated social reform through the imposition of a "single tax" on land

Comstock Law

Federal law promoted by a self-appointed morality crusader and used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents

Women and Economics

Charlotte Perkins Gilman's book urging women to enter the work force and advocating cooperative kitchens and child-care centers

National Women Sufferage Association

Organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote for women

Woman's Christian Temperance Union

Women's organization founded by reformers Frances Willard and others to oppose alcohol consumption

Henry George

Controversial reformer whose book Progress and Poverty advocated solving problems of economic inequality by a tax on the land

Mark Twain

Midwestern-born writer and lecturer who created a new style of American literatre based on social realism and humor

Henry Adams

Well-connected and socially prominent historian who feared modern trends and sought relief in the beauty and culture of the past

Mary Baker Eddy

Author and founder of a popiular new religion based on principles of spiritual healing

Walter Rauschenbusch

Leading Protestant advocate of the "social gospel" who tried to make Christianityrelevant to urban and industrial problems

Booker T. Washington

Former slave who promoted industrial education and economic opportunity but not social equality for blacks

William James

Harvard scholar who made original contributions to modern psychology and philosophy

Victoria Woodhull

Radical feminist propogandist whose eloquent attacks on conventional social morality shocked many Americans in the 1870s

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Brilliant feminist writer who advocated cooperative cooking and child-care arrangements to promote women's economic independence and equality

Jane Addams

Leading social reformer who lived with the poor in the slums and pioneered new forms of activism for women

Anthony Comstock

Vigorous nineteenth-century crusader for sexual "purity" hwo used federal law to enforce his moral views

W.E.B. Du Bois

Harvard-educated scholar and advocate of full black social and economic equality through the leadership of a "talented tenth"

Louis Sullivan

Chicago-based architect whose high-rise innovation allowed more people to crowd into limited urban space

Dwight L. Moody

Popular evangelical preacher who brought the tradition of old-time revivalism to the industrial city

Emily Dickinson

Gifted but isolated New England poet, the bulk of whose works were not published until after her death

lured millions of rural Americans off the farms and into the cities

New industrial jobs and urban excitement

intense poverty and other problems in the crowded urban slums

Uncontrolled rapid growth and the "New Immigration" from Europe created

helped uproot European pesants from their ancestral lands and sent them seeking new opportunities in America and elsewhere

Cheap American grain exports to Europe

sharp hostility from some native-born Americans and organized labor groups

The cultural strangeness and poverty of southern and eastern European immigrants provoked

immigrants and other slum dwellers and pricked middle-class consciences about urban problems

Social gospel ministers and settlement house workers assisted

Weakened the religious influence in American society and created divisions within the churches

Darwinian science and growing urban materialism

supported the substantial improvements in American undergraduate and graduate education in the late nineteenth century

Government land grants and provat philanthropy

Encouraged the mass urban public's taste for scandal and sensation

Popular newspapers and "yellow jouralism"

created sharp divisions about the new morality and issues such as divorce

Changes in moral and sexual attitudes

delay marraige and have fewer children

The difficulties of family life in the industrial city led women and men to

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