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valence electrons

electrons with the highest energy level

electron dot diagram

symbol for the element surrounded by dots

chemical bond

the force of attraction that holds two atoms together as a result of the rearrangement of electrons


an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge

polyatomic ions

ions that are made of more than one atom

ionic bond

the attraction between two oppositely charged ions

ionic compound

a compound that consists of negative and positive ions

chemical formula

combination of symbols that shows the ratio of of elements in a compound


the ratio of elements in a compound


the orderly three dimensional arrangement that ions form

covalent bond

chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons


a neutral group of atoms joined by covalent bonds

double bond

when two atoms share two pairs of electrons

triple bond

when atoms share three electrons

molecular compound

compound that is composed of molecules

polar bond

a covalent bond where electrons are shared unequally

nonpolar bonds

a covalent bond where electrons are shared equally


a mixture made of two or more elements one of which is a metal

metallic bond

an attraction between a positive metal ion and the many electrons surrounding it


anything that has mass and takes up space


the study of matter and how matter changes

physical property

characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance into another substance

chemical property

a characteristic of a substance that describes its ability to change into other substances

physical change

any change that alters the form or appearance of a substance but does not make the substance into another sunstance

chemical change

a change in matter that produces one or more new substances


the substances that undergo change in a chemical reaction


new substances formed by the reaction


a solid that forms from solution during a chemical reaction

endothermic reaction

the total making and breaking of bonds results in an absorption of heat

exothermic reaction

total making and breaking of bonds results in a net release of energy

chemical equation

a way to show a chemical reaction with symbols

conservation of matter

states that during a chemical reaction matter is neither created or destroyed

open system

matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings

closed system

matter is not allowed to enter or leave


a number placed infront of a chemical formula in an equation


when two or more elements combine to make a more complex substance


when compounds break down into simpler substances


when compounds break down into simpler products

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