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38 terms

AP Chemistry - Key Terms

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valence electrons
electrons with the highest energy level
electron dot diagram
symbol for the element surrounded by dots
chemical bond
the force of attraction that holds two atoms together as a result of the rearrangement of electrons
ion
an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge
polyatomic ions
ions that are made of more than one atom
ionic bond
the attraction between two oppositely charged ions
ionic compound
a compound that consists of negative and positive ions
chemical formula
combination of symbols that shows the ratio of of elements in a compound
subscript
the ratio of elements in a compound
crystal
the orderly three dimensional arrangement that ions form
covalent bond
chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
molecule
a neutral group of atoms joined by covalent bonds
double bond
when two atoms share two pairs of electrons
triple bond
when atoms share three electrons
molecular compound
compound that is composed of molecules
polar bond
a covalent bond where electrons are shared unequally
nonpolar bonds
a covalent bond where electrons are shared equally
alloy
a mixture made of two or more elements one of which is a metal
metallic bond
an attraction between a positive metal ion and the many electrons surrounding it
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
chemistry
the study of matter and how matter changes
physical property
characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance into another substance
chemical property
a characteristic of a substance that describes its ability to change into other substances
physical change
any change that alters the form or appearance of a substance but does not make the substance into another sunstance
chemical change
a change in matter that produces one or more new substances
reactants
the substances that undergo change in a chemical reaction
products
new substances formed by the reaction
precipitate
a solid that forms from solution during a chemical reaction
endothermic reaction
the total making and breaking of bonds results in an absorption of heat
exothermic reaction
total making and breaking of bonds results in a net release of energy
chemical equation
a way to show a chemical reaction with symbols
conservation of matter
states that during a chemical reaction matter is neither created or destroyed
open system
matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings
closed system
matter is not allowed to enter or leave
coefficient
a number placed infront of a chemical formula in an equation
synthesis
when two or more elements combine to make a more complex substance
decomposition
when compounds break down into simpler substances
replacement
when compounds break down into simpler products