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the study of sounds of language and their physical properties


the analysis of how sounds function in a language or dialect


the study of the structure of words


the study of the meaning in language


the study of the structure of sentences


the role of context in the interpretation of meaning


the study of language as it relates to society, including race, class, gender, and age


the study of language as it relates to culture, frequently associated with minority linguistic groups within the larger culture


the formal study of the structures and processes of a language


a variation of a language used by people who live in a particular geographical area


the study of language as it relates to the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to learn language


English is derived from this language; a dialect of West Germanic


the study of the history and origin of words


two or more possible meanings to a word or phrase


a socially accepted word or phrase to replace unacceptable language, such as expressions for bodily functions or body parts; example: "passed away"


language that is intended to be evasive or to conceal; example: downsized


specialized language of a particular group or culture


sentences makes a statement and tells about a person, place, thing, or idea


sentence asks a question


sentences that issues a command


sentence communicates strong ideas or feelings


sentences expresses wishes or conditions contrary to fact


sentence can have a single subject or a compound subject and a single predicate or a compound predicate


sentence made up of two independent clauses; the clauses must be joined by a semi-colon or by a comma and a coordinating conjuction


sentence has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses


sentence has two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses

common nouns

do not name specific people, places, or things

proper nouns

names particular people, places, or things

concrete nouns

names a thing that is tangible (can be seen, heard, touched, smelled, or tasted)

abstract noun

names an idea, condition, or feeling

collective noun

names a group or unit


number of nouns, equal or less than one


number of nouns, equal or more than two

nominative case noun

can be the subject of the clause or the predicate noun when it follows the verb be

possessive case noun

shows possession or ownership

objective case noun

can be a direct, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition

transitive verb

takes directs objects--words or word groups that complete the meaning of a verb by naming a receiver of the action

intransitive verb

takes no objects or complements

linking verb

connects the subject and the subject complement (an adjective, noun, or noun equivalent); example: It WAS rainy.

helping verb

comes before another verb; She MUST HAVE passed the Praxis II exam.

present tense

used to describe situations that exist in the present time

past tense

used to tell about what happened in the past

future tense

used to express action that will take place in the future

present perfect

used when the action began in the past but continues into the present

past perfect

used to express action that began in the past and happened prior to another past action

future perfect

used to express action that will be begin in the future and will be completed in the future

infinitive phrase

usually made up of TO and the base form of a verb; example: TO ORDER or TO ABANDON


verb form that usually ends in -ing or -ed


made up of a present participle (a verb ending in -ing) and always functions as a noun


noun to which a pronoun refers: example: HE (antecedent) JIMMY (pronoun)

personal pronoun

takes the place of nouns

relative pronoun

relate adjective clauses to the nouns or pronouns they modify

indefinite pronoun

refer to an unnamed or unknown people or things

interrogative pronoun

asks questions

demonstrative pronoun

points out people, places, or things without naming them


words, clauses, or phrases that limit or describe other words or groups of words


describes four different things: time, place, manner, degree


groups of related words that operate as a single part of speech, such as a verb, verbal, prepositional, appositive, or absolute


groups of related words that have both a subject and a predicate


used between two independent clauses, to separate adjectives, to separate contrasted elements, to see off appositives, to separate items in a list, to enclose explanatory words, after an introductory phrase, after an introductory clause, to set off a nonrestrictive phrase, to ensure clarity, in numbers, to enclose titles, in a direct address, to set off dialogue, to set off items in an address, and to set off dates


used at the end of a sentence, after initial or abbreviation, or as a decimal point

question mark

used at the end of a direct or indirect question and to show uncertainty


used to separate groups that include commas and to set off independent clauses

exclamation point

used to express strong feeling


used in contractions, to form plurals, to form singular possessives, to form plural possessives, in compound nouns, to show shared possession, and to express time or amount


used for emphasis, to set off interrupted speech, to set off an introductory series, and to indicate a sudden break


used to set off explanatory information and to set off full sentences


used to set off added words, editorial corrections, and clarifying information


used between numbers, between fractions, in a special series, to create new words, and to join numbers

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