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the study of language as it relates to society, including race, class, gender, and age
the study of language as it relates to culture, frequently associated with minority linguistic groups within the larger culture
the study of language as it relates to the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to learn language
a socially accepted word or phrase to replace unacceptable language, such as expressions for bodily functions or body parts; example: "passed away"
sentence can have a single subject or a compound subject and a single predicate or a compound predicate
sentence made up of two independent clauses; the clauses must be joined by a semi-colon or by a comma and a coordinating conjuction
nominative case noun
can be the subject of the clause or the predicate noun when it follows the verb be
takes directs objects--words or word groups that complete the meaning of a verb by naming a receiver of the action
connects the subject and the subject complement (an adjective, noun, or noun equivalent); example: It WAS rainy.
used to express action that began in the past and happened prior to another past action
used to express action that will be begin in the future and will be completed in the future
usually made up of TO and the base form of a verb; example: TO ORDER or TO ABANDON
groups of related words that operate as a single part of speech, such as a verb, verbal, prepositional, appositive, or absolute
used between two independent clauses, to separate adjectives, to separate contrasted elements, to see off appositives, to separate items in a list, to enclose explanatory words, after an introductory phrase, after an introductory clause, to set off a nonrestrictive phrase, to ensure clarity, in numbers, to enclose titles, in a direct address, to set off dialogue, to set off items in an address, and to set off dates
used in contractions, to form plurals, to form singular possessives, to form plural possessives, in compound nouns, to show shared possession, and to express time or amount
used for emphasis, to set off interrupted speech, to set off an introductory series, and to indicate a sudden break
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