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Praxis II (0041/0049) Language and Linguistics

STUDY
PLAY
phonetics
the study of sounds of language and their physical properties
phonology
the analysis of how sounds function in a language or dialect
morphology
the study of the structure of words
semantics
the study of the meaning in language
syntax
the study of the structure of sentences
pragmatics
the role of context in the interpretation of meaning
Sociolinguistics
the study of language as it relates to society, including race, class, gender, and age
Ethnolinguistics
the study of language as it relates to culture, frequently associated with minority linguistic groups within the larger culture
linguistics
the formal study of the structures and processes of a language
dialect
a variation of a language used by people who live in a particular geographical area
Psycholinguistics
the study of language as it relates to the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to learn language
Anglo-Saxon
English is derived from this language; a dialect of West Germanic
etymology
the study of the history and origin of words
ambiguity
two or more possible meanings to a word or phrase
euphemism
a socially accepted word or phrase to replace unacceptable language, such as expressions for bodily functions or body parts; example: "passed away"
doublespeak
language that is intended to be evasive or to conceal; example: downsized
jargon
specialized language of a particular group or culture
declarative
sentences makes a statement and tells about a person, place, thing, or idea
interrogative
sentence asks a question
imperative
sentences that issues a command
exclamatory
sentence communicates strong ideas or feelings
conditional
sentences expresses wishes or conditions contrary to fact
simple
sentence can have a single subject or a compound subject and a single predicate or a compound predicate
compound
sentence made up of two independent clauses; the clauses must be joined by a semi-colon or by a comma and a coordinating conjuction
complex
sentence has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
compound/complex
sentence has two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses
common nouns
do not name specific people, places, or things
proper nouns
names particular people, places, or things
concrete nouns
names a thing that is tangible (can be seen, heard, touched, smelled, or tasted)
abstract noun
names an idea, condition, or feeling
collective noun
names a group or unit
singular
number of nouns, equal or less than one
plural
number of nouns, equal or more than two
nominative case noun
can be the subject of the clause or the predicate noun when it follows the verb be
possessive case noun
shows possession or ownership
objective case noun
can be a direct, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition
transitive verb
takes directs objects--words or word groups that complete the meaning of a verb by naming a receiver of the action
intransitive verb
takes no objects or complements
linking verb
connects the subject and the subject complement (an adjective, noun, or noun equivalent); example: It WAS rainy.
helping verb
comes before another verb; She MUST HAVE passed the Praxis II exam.
present tense
used to describe situations that exist in the present time
past tense
used to tell about what happened in the past
future tense
used to express action that will take place in the future
present perfect
used when the action began in the past but continues into the present
past perfect
used to express action that began in the past and happened prior to another past action
future perfect
used to express action that will be begin in the future and will be completed in the future
infinitive phrase
usually made up of TO and the base form of a verb; example: TO ORDER or TO ABANDON
participle
verb form that usually ends in -ing or -ed
gerund
made up of a present participle (a verb ending in -ing) and always functions as a noun
antecedent
noun to which a pronoun refers: example: HE (antecedent) JIMMY (pronoun)
personal pronoun
takes the place of nouns
relative pronoun
relate adjective clauses to the nouns or pronouns they modify
indefinite pronoun
refer to an unnamed or unknown people or things
interrogative pronoun
asks questions
demonstrative pronoun
points out people, places, or things without naming them
modifier
words, clauses, or phrases that limit or describe other words or groups of words
adverbs
describes four different things: time, place, manner, degree
phrases
groups of related words that operate as a single part of speech, such as a verb, verbal, prepositional, appositive, or absolute
clauses
groups of related words that have both a subject and a predicate
comma
used between two independent clauses, to separate adjectives, to separate contrasted elements, to see off appositives, to separate items in a list, to enclose explanatory words, after an introductory phrase, after an introductory clause, to set off a nonrestrictive phrase, to ensure clarity, in numbers, to enclose titles, in a direct address, to set off dialogue, to set off items in an address, and to set off dates
period
used at the end of a sentence, after initial or abbreviation, or as a decimal point
question mark
used at the end of a direct or indirect question and to show uncertainty
semi-colon
used to separate groups that include commas and to set off independent clauses
exclamation point
used to express strong feeling
apostrophe
used in contractions, to form plurals, to form singular possessives, to form plural possessives, in compound nouns, to show shared possession, and to express time or amount
dash
used for emphasis, to set off interrupted speech, to set off an introductory series, and to indicate a sudden break
parenthesis
used to set off explanatory information and to set off full sentences
brackets
used to set off added words, editorial corrections, and clarifying information
hyphen
used between numbers, between fractions, in a special series, to create new words, and to join numbers