55 terms

Chapter 5-Psych Vocab

A relatively permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability, or attitude
classical conditioning
A type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another
Any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds
An involuntary response to a particular stimulus
conditioned reflexes
learned involuntary responses
unconditioned response (UR)
A response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning
unconditioned stimulus (US)
A stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without prior learning
conditioned stimulus (CS)
A neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response
conditioned response (CR)
the learned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus
higher-order conditioning
conditioning that occurs when conditioned stimuli are linked together to form a series of signals
in classical conditioning, the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of an extinguished response (in weaker form) when an organism is exposed to the original conditioned stimulus following a rest period
in classical conditioning, the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus; in operant conditioning, the tendency to make the learned response to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was originally reinforced.
the learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response occurs only to the original conditioned stimulus but not to similar stimuli
taste aversions
the intense dislike and/or avoidance of particular foods that have been associated with nausea or discomfort
trial-and-error learning
learning that occurs when a response is associated with a successful solution to a problem after a number of unsuccessful responses
law of effect
law that states that the consequence, or effect, of a response will determine whether the tendency to respond in the same way in the future will be strengthened or weakened
operant conditioning
A type of learning in which the frequency of a voluntary behavior changes because of the consequences that the behavior produces
anything that follows a response and strengthens it or increases the probability that it will occur
an operant conditioning technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response
skinner box
a soundproof chamber with a device for delivering food to an animal subject
successive approximations
a series of gradual steps, each of which is more similar to the final desired response
in operant conditioning, the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of the withholding of reinforcement
discriminative stimulus
A stimulus that signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded, ignored, or punished
an increase in the frequency of a behavior that occurs as the result of the consequence that the behavior produces
positive reinforcement
an increase in a behavior that occurs at the result of an added consequence
negative reinforcement
an increase in a behavior that occurs because increasing the behavior results in the termination of an unpleasant condition or stimulus
primary reinforcer
a reinforcer that fulfills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning
secondary reinforcer
a reinforcer that is acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers
continuous reinforcement
reinforcement that is administered after every desired or correct response
partial reinforcement
a pattern of reinforcement in which some but not all correct responses are reinforced
schedules of reinforcement
systematic processes for administering partial reinforcement that produce distinct rates and patterns of responses and degrees of resistance to extinction
fixed-ratio schedule
A schedule in which a reinforcer is given after a fixed number of correct, nonreinforced responses
variable-ratio schedule
a schedule in which a reinforcer is given after a varying number of nonreinforced responses, based on an average ratio
fixed-interval schedule
a schedule in which a reinforcer is given following the first correct response after a specific period of time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
a schedule in which a reinforcer is given after the first correct response that follows a varying time of non-reinforcement, based on an average time
partial-reinforcement effect
the greater resistance to extinction that occurs when a portion of the correct responses are reinforced
a decrease in the frequency of a behavior caused by some kind of consequence
positive punishment
a decrease in behavior that results form an added consequence
negative punishment
a decrease in behavior that results from a removed consequence
avoidance learning
learning to avoid events or conditions associated with aversive consequences or phobias
learned helplessness
a passive resignation to aversive conditions that is learned through repeated exposure to inescapable or unavoidable aversive events
the use off sensitive equipment to give people precise feedback about internal physiological processes so that they can learn to exercise control over them
behavior modification
A method of changing behavior through a systematic program based on the learning principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or observational learning
token economy
a program that motivates socially desirable behavior by reinforcing it with tokens that can be exchanged for desired items or privileges
cognitive processes
mental processes such as thinking, knowledge, problem solving, remembering, and forming mental representations
the sudden realization of the relationship between elements in a problem situation, which makes the solution apparent
latent learning
learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not demonstrated until the organism is motivated to do so
cognitive map
a mental representation of a spatial arrangement such as a maze
observational learning
learning by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of that behavior
the individual who demonstrates a behavior or whose behavior is imitated
modeling effect
learning a new behavior from a model through the acquistion of new responses
elicitation effect
exhibiting a behavior similar to that shown by a model in an unfamiliar situation
disinhibitory effect
displaying a previously suppressed behavior because a model does so without receiving punishment
inhibitory effect
suppressing a behavior because a model is punished for displaying the behavior