Chapter 12: The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism 1812-1824
Terms in this set (50)
Oliver Hazard Perry
United States commodore who led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie during the War of 1812
naval officer who forced the invading British army near Plattsburgh to retreat on September 11, 1814; He saved the upper New York from conquest.
William Henry Harrison
Governor of the Indiana territory, that fought against Tecumseh and the Prophet in the battle of Tippecanoe; 9th president of the US
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812
7th president of the US; successfully defended New Orleans from the British in 1815; expanded the power of the presidency
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
5th president, begins expansionism including Florida and Missouri, as well as reigning over the Era of Good Feelings
James Fenimore Cooper
American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826).
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
a senator from Massachusettes and the most powerful speaker of his time who was involved in the Webster-Hayne debate
United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Another term for slavery; The owning of human beings existed in a country that practiced liberty; reason for the Civil War
a tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods
loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
1823; This was a principle of the Monroe Doctrine; stated that the Americas should undergo no further colonization by European powers.
federal projects, such as canals and roads, to develop the nation's transportation system
The principle that external powers should not intervene in the domestic affairs of sovereign states.
a national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
the rush of people going West because of cheap land, especially European immigrants
Second Bank of the US
John C. Calhoun introduced this to help the financial stability of the country by issuing national currency and regulating state banks
McCulloch vs. Maryland
The state of Maryland taxed banknotes produced by the Bank of the United States, claiming that the Bank was unconstitutional. Using implied powers, Marshall countered that the Bank was constitutional and ruled that Maryland was forbidden from taxing the Bank.
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Cohens vs. Virginia
This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review the state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
supreme court decision that ruled that the constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress, not the individual states through which a route passed.
Bonus bill of 1817
gives states 1.5 million dollars for internal improvements; Madison immediately vetoed it.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
turning point during War of 1812 when General Andrew Jackson defeated 1,000 Red Sticks, killing 800
Fletcher vs. Peck
John Marshall ruled against a state legislature that invalidated corrupt land sales in order to protect property rights.
"dynasty" comprised of the four of the first five presidents (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe), all of whom Virginian plantation owners
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
Marshall ruled that Dartmouth College's charter that had been granted by King George was to be upheld because it was a contract. Set precedent for protecting businesses from state governments. Example of federal law surpassing state law.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
treaty of 1818
Treaty between Britain and America, it allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with Canada, and gave both countries a joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for the next 10 years.
panic of 1819
A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.
Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819
Treaty in which Spain agreed to cede its claims to Oregon and give Florida to the Americans in exchange for Texas
Harrison's victory over Tecumseh (Shawnee) in Indiana in 1811 became the slogan of his presidential bid in 1840.
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
Battle of the Thames
Indians defeated by William Henry Harrison; Tecumseh killed; Indian alliance starts to fall apart
Land Act of 1820
authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 per acre in cash, it also brought about cheap transportation and cheap money
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
This treaty between Russia and America set the southern borders of Russian holdings in America at the line of 54 degrees- 40', the southern tip of Alaska.
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Battle of Plattsburgh
Battle where Thomas McDonough defeated the British in the North and secured the border of US
Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Blue light Federalists
term used by people who believed that certain federalists signaled the british when americans were coming