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218 terms

Biology Midterm

A very very very very very very very very very long Midterm study guide with ALL of the vocab that we've done in Blackwell's class.....Prepare to die people....
STUDY
PLAY
observation
using the senses to study the world
data
observations and measurements recorded during an experiment
hypothesis
proposed explanation or answer to an specific question
experiment
process that test a hypothesis by collecting information under controlled conditions
independent variable
condition or factor that is manipulated by a scientist
constant
condition that is controlled so that it does not change during an experiment
dependent variable
experimental data collected through observation and measurement
theory
proposed explanation for a wide variety of observations and experimental results
microscope
tool that provides an enlarged image of an object
gene
specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein
molecular genetics
study of DNA structure and function on the molecular level
genomics
study and comparison of genomes within a single species or among different species
biotechnology
use and application of living things and biological processes
transgenic
organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species
biosphere
all organisms and the part of Earth where they live
biodiversity
variety of life within an area
species
group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
biology
scientific study of all forms of life
organism
any individual living thing
cell
basic unit of life
metabolism
all chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism
DNA
(Deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule that stores information in all organisms
system
changing, organized group of related parts that interact to form a whole
ecosystem
collection of organisms and nonliving things, such as climate, soil, water, and rocks, in an area
homeostasis
regulation and maintenance of constant internal conditions in an organism
evolution
change in a species over time; process of biological change by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors
adaptation
inherited trait that is selected for over time because it allows organisms to better survive in their environment
cell theory
theory that states all organisms are made of cells, all cells are produced by other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life
cytoplasm
jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and in some cells organelles
organelle
membrane-bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process within a cell
prokaryotic cell
cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotic cell
cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
qualitative data
Descriptions in words of what is being observed
quantitative data
Numeric measurements
Cytoskeleton
skeleton made out of proteins that give cell shape
Nucleus
stores and protects DNA
Endoplasmic Reticulum
aids in production of lipids and proteins
Ribosomes
tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins, both in site of protein synthesis and participants in process
Golgi Apparatus
modifies, packages and transports proteins
Vesicles
isolate and transport specific molecules
Mitochondria
make energy for the cell
Vacuole
temporarily stores materials
Lysosomes
digest and recycle foreign materials or worn out parts
Centrioles
divide DNA during cell division
Cell Wall
gives protection, support, and shape to the cell
Chloroplasts
converts solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis
cell membrane
(plasma membrane), forms the boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell.
phospholipid
a molecule composed of three basic parts: a charged phosphate group, glycerol, and two fatty acid chains.
fluid mosaic model
a model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
selective permeability
condition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross a barrier or membrane
receptor
protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
Passive Transport
movement across cell membrane without using energy
Diffusion
movement of molecules in a liquid or gas from a higher to lower concentration
Concentration Gradient
difference in concentration from one location to another
Osmosis
diffusion of water
Isotonic
has same concentration of solutes as cell. water goes in an out at an equal rate (balanced)
Hypertonic
has more solutes than cell does. water flows out of the cell causing it to shrivel ex. salt water
Hypotonic
has less solutes than cell and lets water in causing it to burst ex. distilled water
Facilitate Diffusion
diffusion that transports proteins
cell membrane
(plasma membrane), forms the boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell.
ATP
transfers energy from breakdown of food to cell processes ( think of a wallet filled with money)
ADP
lower energy molecule that can be converted into ATP (think of a empty wallet)
Chemosynthesis
organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy storing
Photosynthesis
captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy
Chlorophyll
absorbs light energy in plants
Chloroplasts
(membrane bound) organelles where photosynthesis takes place in plants
Thylakoids
also known as grana; where light dependent reaction (stage 1) occurs
Stroma
the fluid that surrounds the grana inside a chloroplast
Light Dependent Reactions
captures sunlight energy and takes place in the thylakoid (Stage 1 of photosynthesis)
Light Independent Reactions
uses energy from the light dependent reactions to make sugars and takes place in the stroma (Stage 2 of photosynthesis)
Photostem
series of light absorbing pigments and proteins that capture adn transfer in thlyakoid
Electron Transport Chain
series of protiens in the thylakoid that convert ADP to ATP by transferring electrons
ATP Synthase
enzyme that begins the reaction that adds a high energy phosphate to ADP to form ATP
Calvin Cycle
process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize (combine) simple sugars from carbon dioxide
Cellular Respiration
process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon based molecules when there is oxygen
Aerobic
needs oxygen
Glycolysis
anaerobic process in which glucose is broken down into two three-carbon molecules and two ATP are produced
Anaerobic
does not need oxygen
Krebs Cycle
process during cellular respiration that breaks down carbon to molecules that are used in the electron transport chain
Fermentation
anaerobic process that allows glycolysis to continue to make ATP
Lactic Acid
product of fermentation mostly in muscle cells
Alcoholic Fermentation
glycolysis splits glucose and products enter fermentation, NADH is changed back to NAD
Cell Cycle
pattern of growth, DNA duplication and cell division
occurs in eukaryotic cells
Mitosis
process by which cell divides its nucleus and contents
Cytokinesis
process by which the cell cytoplasm divides
Chromosome
long, continuous thread of DNA that has numerous genes and other info
Histone
protein that organizes chromosomes and wraps around DNA
DNA
double stranded molecule made up of four differernt subunits
Nucleotides
subunits that make up DNA
Chromatin
loose combination of DNA and proteins that's present during interphase
Chromatid
1/2 of a duplicated chromosome
Centromere
region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched
Metaphase and Anaphase
Where do spindle fiber attach during ______ and ________?
Telomere
repeating nucleotides at the end of DNA
Form genes and help prevent the loss of genes
What does telomere do?
Prophase
1st phase of mitosis
Describe the process of prophase.
chromosomes condense, nuclear envelpoe breaks down, and spindle fibers form
Metaphase
2nd stage of mitosis
Metaphase
spindle fibers attach to each chromosomes and chromosomes line up at center of cell
Anaphase
3rd stage of mitosis
Describe the process of anaphase
sister chromatids seperate to opposite sides of the cell
Telophase
4th stage of mitosis
Describe the process of telophase
the nuclei form and chromosomes begin to uncoil
Interphase
prepares cell to divide and DNA is duplicated
Growth Factor
broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
Apoptosis
programmed cell death
Cancer
common name for classes of diseases that divide the cell uncontrollably
Benign
having no dangerous effect on health, especially abnormal growth of non cancerous cells
Malignant
cancerous tumor in which cells break away to other parts of the body
Metastasize
to spread by transferring a disease causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts
Carcinogen
substance that produces or promotes the development of cancer like tobacco
Asexual Reproduction
process by which offspring are produced by a single parent
the joining of gametes which are sperm and eggs
What does asexual reproduction not involve?
Binary Fusion
asexual reproduction in which a cell divides into two equal parts
Tissue
group of cells
Organs
groups of tissues
Organ System
group of organs
Cell Differentation
process by which unspecialized cells mature
Stem Cell
cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undiffereniated
Cyclins
group of proteins that are rapidly made and destroyed at certain points in the cell cycle
Kinases
enzyme that transfers a phosphate group from one molecule to a specific target
Somatic Cell
body cell
Gamete
sex cell (sperm or egg)
Homologous Chromosome
pair of chromosomes that have the same length and share same genes, one from mother and father
Autosome
chromosome that carries characteristic genes
Sex Chromosome
chromosome that determines and controlls gender
Sexual Reproduction
process by whichtwo gametes fuse and offspring are similar to both
Fertilization
fusion of egg and sperm
Diploid
cell that has two copies of each chromosome (two sperm and two egg)
Haploid
cell that has one copy of each chromosome
Meiosis
nuclear division that creates 4 haploid cell forom one diploid with two rounds of division
meiosis
What is important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction?
Gametogenesis
production of gametes
Sperm
male gamete (sex cell)
Egg
female gamete (sex cell)
Polar Body
cells that have a little more than DNA and eventually break down
haploid; meiosis in female
What type of cell is a polar body and where is it produced?
Trait
inherited characteristic
Genetics
study of hereditary patterns and variation of organisms
Purebreed
genetically uniform organism
Cross
mating of two organisms
Law of Segregation
Mendel's first law
part one of law of segregation
organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parent
part two of law of segregation
organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation
Gene
DNA that codes for a particular protein
Allele
alternative form of a gene
Homozygous
has two of the same alleles
Heterozygous
has two different alleles
Genome
an organism's genetic material
Genotype
organism's genetic traits
Phenotype
organism's physical traits
Dominant
allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in genotype
Recessive
allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in genotype
Punnett Square
model for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross (mating)
Monohybrid Cross
cross or mating between organisms that involves only one pair of traits
Testcross
cross between an organisms with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
Dihybrid Cross
cross or mating between organisms involving two pairs of contrasting traits
Law of Independent Assortment
Mendel's second law, stating that allele pairs separate from one another during gamete formation
Probability
likelyhood that a particular event will happen
Crossing Over
exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
Genetic Linkage
tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together
Incomplete Dominance
heterozygous phenotype that is a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes
Codominance
heterozygous phenotype that generally expresses the traits from both alleles
Polygenic Trait
trait that is produced by two or more genes
Carrier
does not show disease symptoms but can pass on disease causing alelle to offspring
Sex Linked Gene
genes that are located on the sex chromosome
X Chromosome Inactivation
process that occurs in females in which one of the X chromosomes is randomly turned off
Karyotype
picture of all of the chromosomes in a cell
Pedigree
chart of genotypes and phenotypes used to determine if an individual is carrier of recessive allele
Epistasis
one gene can interfere with the expression of other genes
codominance and multiple alleles
Blood type is an example of what two things?
polygenic traits
Skin tone and hair color are examples of what?
Epistatic
Albino rabbits are an example of what?
Nucleotide
monomer that forms DNA
monomer = small units
polymer = chain of repeating units
What is a monomer and polymer?
\phosphate, deoxyribose sugar and nitrogen containing base
What are the parts in a nucleotide?
Double Helix
model that compares the structure of DNA
The two strands wind around each other like a twisted ladder
How does the double helix look?
Base Pairing Rules.....
(adenine) A always pairs with (thymie) T
(crystine) C always pairs with (guanine) G
(Erwin) Chargaff
Who discovered the base pairing rules?
discover the 3D structure of DNA
What did Watson and Crick do?
a spiral
What is a helix?
X-Ray crystographly
What technique did Rosalind Franklin use?
DNA carries genetic info
What discovery did Hersey and Chase make?
chargaff
How we found out that all DNA have the same 4 bases?
a pattern
What is a template?
Replication
process by which DNA is copied by the cell cycle
DNA and enzymes
DNA and enzymes
_____ just store genetic info while the __________ do the replicating.
DNA Polymerases
group of enzymes that bond the new nucleotides together
two molecule of DNA; both like original
What is the result of DNA Polymerase?
unzip double helix to seperate the strands so they serve as a template
What do some enzymes do?
Central Dogma
info flows in one direction from DNA to RNA to protiens
RNA
(ribonucleuic acid) chain of nucleotides
Transcription
process of copying a sequence of DNA to make a stand of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
messsage translated to form a new protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
forms parts of ribosomes
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
brings amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosomes tom help make the growing protein
Translation
process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
Codon
sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
Start Codon
codon that signal to ribosomes to begin translation (codes for the first amino acid in a protein)
Stop Codon
codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation
Anticodon
set of three nucleotides in a tRNA that binds to a complementary mRNA during translation
Mutation
change in the DNA sequence
Frameshift Mutation
mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence
Mutagen
agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation
Point Mutation
mutation that involves a substitution of only one nucleotide
Restriction enzyme
(like "molecular scissors") enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at a specific nucleotide sequence
Gel Electrophoresis
method of separating different lengths of DNA strands by applying an electrical current to gel
Restriction Map
diagram that shows the lengths of fragments between restriction sites
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
method for increasing the quanity of DNA by separating it into two strands and adding primers and enzymes
Primer
short segment of DNA that initiates replication by DNA polymerase
DNA Fingerprint
unique sequence of DNA base pairs that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level
Clone
genetically identical copy of a single gene or entire organism
Genetic Engineering
process of changing an organism's DNA to the organism new traits
Recombinant DNA
genetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than one organism or species
Plasmid
circular piece of genetic material found in bacteria that can replicate separately from DNA of main chromosome
Gene Knockout
genetic manipulation in which one or more of an organism's genes are prevented from being expressed
Transgenic
organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species