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Vertebral level of hyoid bone


Vertebral level of thyroid cartilage


Vertebral level of cricoid cartilage


Muscles that are innervated by CN XI

Trapezius, SCM

Structures that course between anterior and middle scalene

Brachial plexus, subclavian artery

Innervation of omohyoid, sternohyoid and sternothyroid

Ansa cervicalis (C1-3 ventral rami)

Innervation of digastric

Anterior belly = CN V; Posterior belly = CN VII

Innervation of carotid sinus and carotid body


Major structures to pass through pharyngeal wall superior to superior constrictor

Auditory tube, levator veli palatini

Nerves of pharyngeal plexus

CN IX (mucosa), CN X (musculature), Sympathetics (vasomotor)

Only muscle innervated by CN IX


Structures that pierce thyrohyoid membrane

Internal laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal artery

Only muscle to abduct vocal cords

Posterior cricoarytenoid

Innervation of cricothyroid

External laryngeal nerve

Innervation of laryngeal muscles exclusive of cricothyroid

Recurrent laryngeal

Muscle that increases tension on vocal cords


Sensory nerve to larynx superior to vocal cords

Internal laryngeal

Sensory nerve to larynx inferior to vocal cords

Recurrent laryngeal

Site of aspirated lodged fishbone

Piriform recess

Afferent and efferent limbs of gag reflex


Afferent and efferent limbs of cough reflex


Nerve at risk when performing thyroidectomy

Lt & Rt recurrent laryngeal nerves

Nerve injury that causes hoarseness following thyroid surgery

Recurrent laryngeal

Chief structures that traverse internal acoustic meatus


Foramen where CN VII exits skull

Stylomastoid foramen

Major arterial supply to calvaria and supratentorial dura

Middle meningeal

Major cutaneous nerve of face


Major artery to internal structures of head


Spinal levels of sympathetic fibers to head

T1 - 2

Autonomic ganglia for CN III


Sensory ganglia for CN VII


Autonomic ganglia for CN VII

PPG and submandibular

Autonomic ganglia for CN IX


Muscle attached to disc of TMJ

Lateral pterygoid

Muscle that retracts mandible


Major nerve to TMJ (pain)

Auriculotemporal (V3)

Specific nerves that elicit secretion from the parotid gland

Tympanic branch of CN IX and lesser petrosal

Branch of CN V that carries parasympathetics to parotid

Auriculotemporal (V3)

Structure that opens into superior meatus of nasal cavity

Posterior ethmoid sinus

Structures that open into middle meatus of nasal cavity

Frontal, maxillary, anterior and middle ethmoid sinuses

Structure that opens into inferior meatus of nasal cavity

Nasolacrimal duct

Major artery to nasal cavity


Most common site of nose bleed

Kiesselbach's plexus

Innervation of levator veli palatini


Muscle that opens auditory tube

Tensor veli palatini

Innervation of tensor veli palatini


Nerve that provides taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue

Chorda tympani

Site of cell bodies for nerve that carries taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue

Geniculate ganglion

Specific nerve that elicits secretion from submandibular gland

Chorda tympani

Branch of CN V that carries parasympathetic to submandibular


Nerve injured when tonsilar pillars sag and uvula deviates


Nerve potentially injured with tonsillectomy


Muscle that protrudes tongue


Nerve injured when deviation of protruded tongue

Ipsilateral CN XII

Specific nerve that stimulates tear production

Greater petrosal CN VII

Sensory nerve to cornea

CN V1 (nasociliary)

Muscle that elevates and abducts eye

Inferior oblique

Muscle that depresses and abducts eye

Superior oblique

Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicits dilation of pupil

Lateral horn, T1 - 2

Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicits dilation of pupil

Superior cervical ganglion

Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicits constriction of pupil


Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicits constriction of pupil

Ciliary ganglion

Innervation of external surface of tympanic membrane

Auriculotemporal(V3),CN X

Innervation of internal surface of tympanic membrane


Structure that separates pelvis from perineum

Pelvic diaphragm

Two major components of pelvic diaphragm

Levator ani and coccygeus

Two major components of levator ani

Pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus

Two muscles which close lateral pelvic wall

Obturator internus and piriformis

Means by which obturator internus exits pelvis

Lesser sciatic foramen

Means by which piriformis exits pelvis

Greater sciatic foramen

Innervation of detrusor

Pelvic splanchnics (S2-4)

Innervation of trigone

Sympathetics (Pregang. T11-L2; lesser, least, lumbar splanchnic nn.)

Innervation of sphincter urethrae

Pudendal n. (S 2,3,4)

Remnants of umbilical arteries

Medial umbilical ligaments

Provides major vasculature to pelvic organs

Internal iliac

Chief artery to rectal mucosa

Superior rectal

Chief artery to rectal muscular wall

Middle rectal

Most common type of pelvic inlet in females


Two remnants of gubernaculum in females

Ovarian and round ligament

Ligament that contains ovarian vessels

Suspensory ligament of ovary

Cavity into which ova immediately escape the ovary


Lymphatic drainage for ovary and testes

Lumbar nodes (para-aortic)

Normal position of uterus

Anterverted, anteflexed

Name given to orientation where uterus and vagina intersect at angle of 90 degrees


Name given to orientation where uterine body and cervix intersect at angle of 10-15 degrees


Chief uterine support


Ligament that contains uterine vessels

Lateral cervical

Structure potentially injured with hysterectomy


Relation of ureter to uterine artery

Inferior and posterior

Structure that separates deep and superficial perineal spaces

Perineal membrane

Bony landmarks between anal and UG triangles

Ischial tuberosities

Structure forming lateral wall of ischioanal fossa

Fascia of obturator Internus

Structure that forms the pudendal canal

Fascia of obturator Internus

Structure that separates internal and external hemorrhoids

Pectinate line

Lymphatic drainage for area superior to pectinate line of anal canal

Internal iliac, inferior mesenteric nodes

Lymphatic drainage for area inferior to pectinate line of anal canal

Superficial inguinal nodes

Lymphatic drainage for glans penis

Deep inguinal nodes

Muscle which compresses the bulb of penis


Muscle which compresses the crus of penis


Nerves of erection

Pelvic splanchnic, nervi erigentes (S 2,3,4)

Muscles which meet at the perineal body

Superficial and deep perineal, bulbospongiosus, external anal sphincter, pubococcygeus

Major structure of deep perineal space

Sphincter urethrae

Dermatome to umbilical area


Dermatome to suprapubic area


Vertebral level associated with origin of celiac artery


Vertebral level associated with origin of SMA


Vertebral level associated with origin of renal arteries


Vertebral level associated with origin of gonadal arteries


Vertebral level associated with origin of IMA


Vertebral level of umbilicus

Disc L3-4

Vertebral level of aortic bifurcation


Vertebral level for formation of IVC


Spinal levels to muscles of anterior abdominal wall

T7 - L1

Structure that forms superficial inguinal ring

Aponeurosis of external oblique

Structure that forms deep inguinal ring

Transversalis fascia

Structure that forms floor of inguinal canal

Inguinal ligament

Bony attachments of inguinal ligament

ASIS and pubic tubercle

Structures that form conjoint tendon

Internal oblique and transversus abdominis

Abdominal layer continuous with external spermatic fascia

External oblique

Abdominal layer continuous with cremasteric fascia

Internal oblique

Abdominal layer continuous with internal spermatic fascia

Transversalis fascia

Structure that lies between protrusion sites of direct and indirect inguinal hernias

Inferior epigastric vessels

Type of hernia that enters deep inguinal ring

Indirect inguinal

Most common type of hernia

Indirect inguinal

Most common side for indirect inguinal hernia


Type of hernia that protrudes through Hesselbach's triangle

Direct inguinal

Boundaries of Hesselbach's triangle

Inguinal ligament, rectus abdominus, inferior epigastric artery and vein

Type of hernia that traverses both deep and superficial rings

Indirect inguinal

Condition in which fluid accumulates in processus vaginalis


Communication between greater and lesser sacs

Epiploic foramen

Superior border of epiploic foramen

Caudate lobe of liver

Inferior border of epiploic foramen

Part one of duodenum

Posterior border of epiploic foramen


Ligament that contains portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct

Hepatoduodenal (lesser omentum)

Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid superiorly from left paracolic gutter

Phrenicocolic ligament

Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid inferiorly from right infracolic compartment

Root of the mesentery

Superior extent of right paracolic gutter

Hepatorenal recess

Most inferior portion of peritoneal cavity in females

Rectouterine pouch

Structures supplied by celiac artery

Stomach, duodenum, liver, spleen, gallbladder, pancreas

Branches of celiac artery

Left gastric, common hepatic and splenic

Blood supply to stomach

Right and left gastroepiploics, right, left and short gastrics

Major structures of bed of stomach

Pancreas, spleen, left kidney and suprarenal gland, diaphragm

Ducts that join to form common bile duct

Cystic and common hepatic

Structure that separates right and left lobes of liver

Falciform ligament

Remnant of umbilical vein

Round ligament of liver

Origin of cystic artery

Right hepatic artery

Ribs directly related to spleen

Ribs 9-11 (left)

Organs related to spleen

Stomach, colon, left kdiney, tail of pancreas

Artery to small intestine


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