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Psychology- Semester 1 Final (Chapter 1, 3, 5 words)
Terms in this set (73)
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
observable and measurable actions of people and animals
private, unobservable mental processes such as sensation, perception, thought, and problem solving
a set of assumptions about why something is the way it is an happens the way it does.
research that is conducted for its own sake, that is, without seeking a solution too a specific problem.
an examination of one's own thoughts and feelings
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
the school of psychology founded by William James that emphasizes the prupose of behavior and mental processes
The school of psychology founded by John Watson that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior
the school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions into meaningful wholes
the school of psychologists, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior.
The psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior
the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices.
the perspective that stresses the influences of unconscious forces on human behavior
the psychological point of view that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior
the theory that suggests that people have the ability to change their environments or to create new ones
A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior
Psychological approach that emphasizes the role played by thoughts in determining behavior.
Central Nervous System
the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
made up of nerve cells that send messages between the central nervous system and other parts of the body
nerve cells that run through our entire bodies and communicate with each other.
the part of a neuron that produces the energy needed to fuel the activity of the cell.
thin fibers that receive information from other neurons and pass the message through the cell body.
carries messages away from the cell body of a neuron and vary greatly in length.
a white fatty substance that insulates and protects the axon.
small fibers at the end of an axon that branch out.
the junction between the axon terminals of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron.
chemical that are stored in sacs used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across synapses to another cell.
column of nerves about as thick as a thumb that extends from the brain down the back and is protected by the bones of the spine.
Somatic Nervous System
transmits sensory messages to the central nervous system. It is activated by touch, pain, changes in temperature, and changes in body position.
Autonomic Nervous System
a division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the bodies vital involuntary functions such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion, and blood pressure.
an important structure of the hindbrain part of the brain, nearest the spinal cord which controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.
a brain structure located in front of the medulla and is is involved in regulating respiration, movement, attention, alertness, and sleep.
sometimes called the "little brain" looks like the larger part of the brain ( cerebrum ) but it is much smaller.
Reticular Activating System
this part of the brain stem is involved in arousal and attention, sleep and wakefulness, and control of reflexes.
Latin word meaning "inner chamber" and a critical structure and the brains 'sensory relay station.'
a tiny brain structure located under the thalamus that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature.
forms a fringe along the inner edge of the cerebrum and is involved in learning and memory, emotion, sex, hunger, and aggression.
Latin for brain, is the crowning glory of the brain. Only in human beings does the cerebrum make up such a large part of the brain.
the surface layer of the Cerebrum made up of wrinkled ridges and valleys. What we consider gray brain matter.
a structure in the brain connecting the two cerebral hemispheres, the right and left brain.
areas of the brain which serve mainly to shape information into something meaningful on which we can act.
the system of glands that produce hormones that help to control bodily metabolic activity.
chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands into the blood stream that affect body processes.
the transmission of human characteristics from parents to offspring.
the basic building blocks of heredity. A sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.
a threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
the awareness of things that are both inside and outside ourselves
concept used to talk about something we cannot see, touch, or measure directly.
ideas that are not in your awareness now but you can recall them
Unconscious (sometimes called subconscious)
information that is unavailable to awareness under most circumstances
descriptive of bodily processes such as the growing of hair which we are not aware
Altered states of consciousness
a persons sense of self or sense of the world changes
biological clocks; a regular sequence of biological processes such as temperature and sleep that occurs every 24 hours
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM)
a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and linked to dreaming
the inability to sleep
a sleep disorder characterized by higher arousal and aparent terror; unlike nightmares, night terrors are seldom remembered
a sleep disorder in which breathing is interrupted
an uncommon sleep disorder characterized by brief attacks of REM sleep; often inoppurtune moments
a method some people use to try to narrow their consciousness so that the stresses of the outside world fade away
a system that proves, or "feeds back," data about something happening in the body
a condition in which people appear to be highly suggestable and to behave as if they are in a trance
instructions given to a person under hypnosis that are supposed to be carried out after the hypnosis has ended
a compulsive need for and use of a habit forming substance
drugs that slow the activity of the nervous system
a state of drunkenness characterized by impaired coordination and judgment
addictive depressants that have been used to relieve pain and induce sleep many narcotics- such as morphine, heroin and codeine- are derived from the opium poppy plant
they increase the activity of the nervous system
they help people stay awake and reduce appetite
a perception of an object or a sound that seems to be real but is not real
a false idea that seems real
a drug that produces hallucinations
the removal of harmful substances from the body
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