Series of DNA nucelotides that codes for the production of a single polypeptide, mRNA, rRNA, or tRNA.
phosphodiester bond, sugar-phosphate backbone
Each nucleotide is bound by a ___ between the 3rd carbon of a deoxyribose and a 5th carbon on the other. This creates the ___.
What the linking between two nitrogenous bases on opposite complementary DNA or certain types of RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds is called.
DNA replication is ____ because it has an old strand and a newly-crafted strand on it.
An enzyme that helps` catalyze in the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides into a DNA strand. Requires an RNA polymerase to get started.
Short molecules of single-stranded DNA that are formed on the lagging strand during DNA replication.
Repeated nucleotide units that protect the chromosomes from being eroded through repeated rounds of replication.
Collects amino acids in the cytosol and transfers them to ribosomes so that the ribosomes can make proteins.
In ___, a termination sequence and special proteins help to dissociate RNA polymerase from DNA.
antisense strand (-)
The strand of dna which is not used during transcription to make mRNA. (Template strand)
A group of genes or a segment of DNA that functions as a single transcription unit. It is comprised of an operator, a promoter, and one or more structural genes that are transcribed into one polycistronic mRNA.
Group of adjacent and coordinately controlled genes concerned with the metabolism of lactose in E. Coli.
RNA transcript immediately after transcription in the nucleus, before rNA splicing or polyadenylation to form the mature mRNA.
Non-coding, intervening sequences of dna that are transcribed, but are removed from within the primary gene transcript and rapidly degraded during maturation of messenger rna.
snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein)
They join together with proteins to make a spliceosome that loop the exons together so that they can be removed.
nucelic acid hybridization
This is why you can take some known DNA and unknown DNA and see if they go together to see if they are the same thing.
An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of DNA at restriction sites, producing small fragments used for gene splicing in recombinant DNA technology and for chromosome mapping.
Spliced DNA formed from two or more different sources that have been cleaved by restriction enzymes and joined by ligases.
An organism or vehicle that transmits the causative agent or disease-causing organism from the reservoir to the host.
A collection of dna molecules, derived from restriction fragments that have been cloned in vectors, that includes all or part of the genetic material of an organism.
Some bacteria don't have vectors and some vectors don't have the needed DNA fragment, so include ____ and an antibiotic resistant gene to search for the right bacteria.
A general term for a piece of DNA or RNA corresponding to a gene or sequence of interest, that has been labelled either radioactively or with some other detectable molecule.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
The first practical system for in vitro amplification of DNA and as such one of the most important recent developments in molecular biology.
The pairing of complementary dna or rna sequences, via hydrogenbonding, to form a double-stranded molecule. Mostoften used to describe the binding of a short primer or probe.`
A technique used for searching for a specific dNA fragment.
1. separate DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis
2. Change pH of gel to basic, thus allowing disruption of H-bonds
3. blot gel with nitrocellulose paper
4. Heat paper so as to fix dNA fragments
5. probe with labelled messenger RNA or cDNA
complementary mRNA/cDNA fragments will have hybridised.
RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphisms)
Used to ID criminals in court cases, based on finding an individual's specific restriction sites in their DNA.
Turns DNA nucleotide sequences into amino acid sequences, which later becomes a protein.
The genetic code is ____, which means almost all living things use the same codes for the same proteins.
A polypeptide contains 100 amino acids. How many possible amino acid sequences are there for this polypeptide?
A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides located on one end of transfer RNA. It binds to the complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation phase of protein synthesis.
Svedberg units (S)
The ribosome and its subunits are measured in terms of sedimentation coefficients given in ___.
Gives the speed of a particle in a centrifuge and is proportional to mass, and related to shape and density.
When a portion breaks off during cross-over, homologous recombination, or if it breaks off randomly.
transposable elements (transposons)
They can remove themselves from a chromosome and place themselves somewhere else.
A complex of nucleic acids (e.g. DNA or RNA) and proteins (histones), which condenses to form a chromosome during cell division.
A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, or as a circular strand of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of certain eukaryotes.
A chromosome that is similar in physical attributes and genetic information to another chromosome with which it pairs during meiosis. A member of homologous chromosome.
A cell or an organism consisting of two sets of chromosomes: usually, one set from the mother and another set from the father. In a diploid state the haploid number is doubled, thus, this condition is also known as 2n.
The two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed from the duplication of the chromosome during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosomes during the late stages of cell division.
Mitosis stage: Condensation of chromatin into chromosomes. Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell and the spindle apparatus begins to form.
A self-replicating, small, fibrous, cylindrical-shaped organelle, typically located in the cytoplasm near the nucleus in cells of most animals. It is involved in the process of nuclear division.
Any of a network of filaments that collectively form a mitotic spindle (in mitosis) and meiotic spindle (in meiosis). It is chiefly involved in moving and segregating the chromosomes during nuclear division.
A star-shaped cluster of microtubules radiating from the edges of a cell, and seen immediately before and during mitosis of an animal cell.
The constricted region joining the two sister chromatids that make up an X-shaped chromosome.
A specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape.
When sister chromatids split at their attaching centromeres and move towards opposite ends of the cells.
The division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane following the division of the nucleus resulting into two cells, each having its own nucleus and cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane.
The normal separation or moving apart of chromosomes toward opposite poles of the cell during cell division.
A mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
An undifferentiated male germ cell in the male gonads that divides mitotically, and later develops into spermatocyte.
A male gametocyte derived from a spermatogonium, and gives rise to haploid spermatids through meiosis.
Meiosis stage: Homologous chromosomes like up. Crossing over occurs. Has four total chromosomes.
A process occurring during meiosis wherein two chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material.
The process of forming new allelic combination in offspring by exchanges between genetic materials (as exchange of DNA sequences between DNA molecules).
ChiasmaThe point of contact between paired chromatids during meiosis, resulting in a cross-shaped configuration and representing the cytological manifestation of crossing over like the letter X.
One member of a pair (or any of the series) of genes occupying a specific spot on a chromosome (called locus) that controls the same trait.
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms.