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Series of DNA nucelotides that codes for the production of a single polypeptide, mRNA, rRNA, or tRNA.


Eukaryotic genes that are actively being transcribed are found in ____.

26, 38

There are __ to __ genes found in the human genome.

Central Dogma of genes

DNA -> RNA -> Protein: What is this theory called?

adenine, cytosine

The purines of DNA?

guanosine, thymine

The pyrimidines of DNA?


Purines are ___-ringed structures


Pyrimidines are ___-ringed structures.

phosphodiester bond, sugar-phosphate backbone

Each nucleotide is bound by a ___ between the 3rd carbon of a deoxyribose and a 5th carbon on the other. This creates the ___.

base pairing

What the linking between two nitrogenous bases on opposite complementary DNA or certain types of RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds is called.

complementary strand

Strands that match so that they can bind to make DNA.

adenine, thymine

2 hydrogen bonds between them.

cytosine, guanine

3 hydrogen bonds between them.


DNA replication is ____ because it has an old strand and a newly-crafted strand on it.


DNA synthesizing starts in the ___ of a strand.

leading, lagging

DNA has these two strands when being synthesized

DNA polymerase

An enzyme that helps` catalyze in the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides into a DNA strand. Requires an RNA polymerase to get started.

Okazaki fragment

Short molecules of single-stranded DNA that are formed on the lagging strand during DNA replication.

DNA helicase

Unwinds the DNA.


Means it has fewer oxygens somewhere.

DNA ligase

Moves along the lagging strand and and ties the Okazaki fragments together.

RNA primer

DNA polymerase requires a ____ to get started.


__ step of DNA replication: Helicase unwinds double helix


__ step of DNA replication: RNA polymerase builds a primer.


__ step of DNA replication: DNA polymerase asembles the leading and lagging strands.


__ step of DNA replication: The primers are removed.


__ step of DNA replication: Okazaki fragments are joined.


Repeated nucleotide units that protect the chromosomes from being eroded through repeated rounds of replication.


It catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres.


RNA is made from ___.


RNA has how many strands?


DNA is produced by ___.


RNA is produced by ____.

mRNA, rRna, tRNA

The three types of RNA?

messenger RNA

Delivers the DNA code for amino acids to the cytosol where the proteins are made.

ribosomal RNA

This combines with proteins to make ribosomes.


These complexes direct the synthesis of DNA.

transfer RNA

Collects amino acids in the cytosol and transfers them to ribosomes so that the ribosomes can make proteins.


Where rRNA is made.

ribonucleic acid

RNA is an abbreviation for?


Initiation, elongation, termination are the processes that make what?


The process where RNA is made from a DNA template.


___ step of transcription: initiation


___ step of transcription: elongation


___ step of transcription: termination

RNA polymerase

Is necessary for constructing RNA chains using DNA genes as templates.


Sequence of DNA nucleotides that designates a beginning point for transcription.


In ____, RNA polymerase scands the DNA molecule for the promoter.


In ____, RNA polymerase recognizes the promoter and transcribes the RNA.


In ___, a termination sequence and special proteins help to dissociate RNA polymerase from DNA.

antisense strand (-)

The strand of dna which is not used during transcription to make mRNA. (Template strand)

sense strand (+)

The strand of dNA which is used during transcription to make mRNA. (Coding strand)


Activate the activity of RNA polymerase.


Stop the activity of RNA polymerase.


In (eukaryotes/prokaryotes), a change in environment causes a change in genes.


Prokaryotes have ____ mRNA which has many genes in a single transcript.


Eukaryotes have ____ mRNA which has one gene in a single transcript.


A group of genes or a segment of DNA that functions as a single transcription unit. It is comprised of an operator, a promoter, and one or more structural genes that are transcribed into one polycistronic mRNA.

lac operon

Group of adjacent and coordinately controlled genes concerned with the metabolism of lactose in E. Coli.

primary transcript

RNA transcript immediately after transcription in the nucleus, before rNA splicing or polyadenylation to form the mature mRNA.

5' cap

This cap is the attachment site during protein synthesis.

poly A tail

The 3' cap has a ___ which has only adenine bases and protects mRNA from degeneration.


_____ is the addition of a poly(A) tail to an RNA molecule.


Non-coding, intervening sequences of dna that are transcribed, but are removed from within the primary gene transcript and rapidly degraded during maturation of messenger rna.


The protein-coding region in the DNA.

snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein)

They join together with proteins to make a spliceosome that loop the exons together so that they can be removed.


Are there more introns or exons?

denature DNA

To ____ means to separate the two strands of DNA's double helix.


G/C or A/T bands have a higher melting point.

nucelic acid hybridization

This is why you can take some known DNA and unknown DNA and see if they go together to see if they are the same thing.


Bacteria protect their own DNA with this process, which involves adding -CH3.

restriction enzymes

An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of DNA at restriction sites, producing small fragments used for gene splicing in recombinant DNA technology and for chromosome mapping.


Can be read the same way either frontwards or backwards.

recombinant DNA

Spliced DNA formed from two or more different sources that have been cleaved by restriction enzymes and joined by ligases.


An organism or vehicle that transmits a piece of genetic material into a host.


An organism or vehicle that transmits the causative agent or disease-causing organism from the reservoir to the host.


Genetically identical organism copies.


A collection of dna molecules, derived from restriction fragments that have been cloned in vectors, that includes all or part of the genetic material of an organism.


Should libraries be screened for appropriate clones?


Some bacteria don't have vectors and some vectors don't have the needed DNA fragment, so include ____ and an antibiotic resistant gene to search for the right bacteria.


A general term for a piece of DNA or RNA corresponding to a gene or sequence of interest, that has been labelled either radioactively or with some other detectable molecule.


_____ is reverse transcribed DNA. Lacks introns.

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

The first practical system for in vitro amplification of DNA and as such one of the most important recent developments in molecular biology.


The pairing of complementary dna or rna sequences, via hydrogenbonding, to form a double-stranded molecule. Mostoften used to describe the binding of a short primer or probe.`

southern blot

A technique used for searching for a specific dNA fragment.
1. separate DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis

2. Change pH of gel to basic, thus allowing disruption of H-bonds

3. blot gel with nitrocellulose paper

4. Heat paper so as to fix dNA fragments

5. probe with labelled messenger RNA or cDNA

6. wash

complementary mRNA/cDNA fragments will have hybridised.

northern blot

Just like southern blot, but looks for RNA fragments.

RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphisms)

Used to ID criminals in court cases, based on finding an individual's specific restriction sites in their DNA.

genetic code

Turns DNA nucleotide sequences into amino acid sequences, which later becomes a protein.


When more than one series of three nucelotides can code for any amino acid.


When only one code can code for one amino acid.

almost universal

The genetic code is ____, which means almost all living things use the same codes for the same proteins.


Three consecutive nucleotides on a strand of mRNA.


The stop codons.


The start codon, also codes for amino acid methionine.


A polypeptide contains 100 amino acids. How many possible amino acid sequences are there for this polypeptide?

3 nucleotide bases

Need what to make an amino acid?


The process of protein synthesis directed by mRNA.


Thsi carries the genetic code from the nucleus to the cytosol in the form of codons.


A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides located on one end of transfer RNA. It binds to the complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation phase of protein synthesis.

large subunit, small subunit

Things that the ribosome are made of, besides tRNA and proteins.

Svedberg units (S)

The ribosome and its subunits are measured in terms of sedimentation coefficients given in ___.

sedimentation coefficient

Gives the speed of a particle in a centrifuge and is proportional to mass, and related to shape and density.


Prokaryotic ribosomes are size __S.


Eukaryotic ribosomes are size __S.


Sediment coefficients don't add up like normal numbers.

P-site (peptidyl)



Exit site during translation.


When one piece of random DNA is inserted into another.


When a portion breaks off during cross-over, homologous recombination, or if it breaks off randomly.


When a spare fragment breaks off and ends up as an extra in another piece of DNA.


When the orientation of a piece of genetic code is put on backwards.

transposable elements (transposons)

They can remove themselves from a chromosome and place themselves somewhere else.

nonsense mutation

When a cell makes a stop codon by accident with a mistake insertion or deletion.

forward mutation

Mutation that changes the organism even more.

backward mutation

Fixes the mutation, reverting the area back to normal.

wild type

Genetic code in its original, unaltered form.


Mass of cancer cells.


Genes that cause cancer.


Genes that stimulate growth.


Mutagens that cause cancer.

frameshift mutation

Mutation with 3 nucleotides changed.


Proteins that dna tightly coils around to form chromosomes.


Contains eight histone molecules, and wrap into coils called solenoids.


A complex of nucleic acids (e.g. DNA or RNA) and proteins (histones), which condenses to form a chromosome during cell division.

nucleus, mitochondria

Where is DNA found in inside of animals? (Think of cells.)


A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, or as a circular strand of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of certain eukaryotes.


A qualitative characteristic. It is an attribute of phenotype, not of genotype.


A chromosome that is similar in physical attributes and genetic information to another chromosome with which it pairs during meiosis. A member of homologous chromosome.


A cell or an organism consisting of two sets of chromosomes: usually, one set from the mother and another set from the father. In a diploid state the haploid number is doubled, thus, this condition is also known as 2n.


A cell or an organism having half of the number of chromosomes in somatic cells.

life cycle of a cell

G1, S, G2, M, C.

G1 stage

The growth phase in the life cycle of a cell.

G1 stage

Usually the longest stage, its when the cell grows.

G0 stage

A nongrowing stage that many cells in the body stay in.

S stage

The cell cycle devotes itself to replicating DNA here. It now has two sister chromatids.


The two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed from the duplication of the chromosome during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosomes during the late stages of cell division.

G2 stage

When the cell prepares to divide in the cell life cycle.


Nuclear division without genetic change.

stages of mitosis

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.


Mitosis stage: Condensation of chromatin into chromosomes. Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell and the spindle apparatus begins to form.


A self-replicating, small, fibrous, cylindrical-shaped organelle, typically located in the cytoplasm near the nucleus in cells of most animals. It is involved in the process of nuclear division.

spindle apparatus

Any of a network of filaments that collectively form a mitotic spindle (in mitosis) and meiotic spindle (in meiosis). It is chiefly involved in moving and segregating the chromosomes during nuclear division.


A star-shaped cluster of microtubules radiating from the edges of a cell, and seen immediately before and during mitosis of an animal cell.


The constricted region joining the two sister chromatids that make up an X-shaped chromosome.


A specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape.


Mitosis stage: Chromosomes align along the equator of the cell.


When sister chromatids split at their attaching centromeres and move towards opposite ends of the cells.


The cell separates.

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