Create an account
light microscope (LM)
an optical instrument with lenses that refract visible light to magnify images and project them into a viewer's eye or onto photographic film
the theory that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells
electron microscope (EM)
a microscope that uses magnets to focus an electron beam through or onto the surface of a specimen
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
a microscope that uses an electron beam to study the fine details of cell surfaces or other specimens
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
a microscope that uses an electron beam to study the internal structure of thinly sectioned specimens
the membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into and out of the cell; consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; only found in the domains Bacteria and Archaea
a type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles
a threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; the main gene carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell
a long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, like cilia it has a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules covered by the cell's plasma membrane
the combination of DNA and proteins that constitutes eukaryotic chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing
a double membrane that encloses the nucleus, perforated with pores that regulate traffic with the cytoplasm
a structure within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is made and assembles with proteins imported from the cytoplasm to make ribosomal subunits
a network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
an extensive membranous network in a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions
rough endoplasmic reticulum
synthesis of membrane lipids and proteins, secretory proteins and hydrolytic enzymes
a small membranous sac in a eukaryotic cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell
modification and sorting of macromolecules; formation of lysosomes and transport vesicle
digestion of ingested food, bacteria and a cell's damaged organelles and macromolecules for recycling
digestion (food); storage of chemicals and cell enlargement (central); water balance (contractile)
in a plant cell, a large membranous sac with diverse roles in growth and the storage of chemicals and wastes
the compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle
the dense fluid within the chloroplast that surrounds the thylakoid membrane and is involved in the synthesis of organic molecule from CO2 and water
a flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplast; it contains chlorophyll and the molecular complexes of the light reactions of photosynthesis
a stack of membrane-bounded thylakoids in a chloroplast; the site where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy during light reactions of photosynthesis
a theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as prokaryotic cells engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic cell; the engulfed cell and its host cell then evolved into a single organism
maintenance of cell shape; anchorage for organelles; movement of organelles within cells; cell movement
the thinnest of the three main kinds of protein fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a solid, helical rod composed of the globular protein actin
an intermediate-size protein fiber that is one of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells
the thickest of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a hollow tube made of globular proteins called tublins
a short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two single microtubules covered by the cell's plasma membrane
extracellular matrix (ECM)
support; regulation of cellular activities; the mesh-work surrounding animal cells
an open channel in a plant cell wall through which strands of cytoplasm connect from adjacent cells
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together